When it was created in 1881, HEC (‘Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales’) was frowned upon. Only a few supporters of economic ‘liberalism’ and a handful of firm believers of progress by education were really convinced. At that time, the Paris Chamber of Commerce and Industry discards this as a consequence of current sociological and psychological rigidities. Business circles are indeed regarded with contempt. Merchants and retailers are seen as thieves! On the contrary, the civil service which attracts many young people confers a social and professional status which is far more honourable. A situation which lamented a member of the progressive Public Instruction High Authority: "Parents want their children to become civil servants, while so many opportunities are open to their ingenuity and intelligence." Today, such a dispute would not occur. HEC leads to civil service and private business alike!