Articles scientifiques

Effects of inter-group status on the pursuit of intra-group status

J. W. CHANG, Rosalind CHOW, Anita WOOLLEY

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

mars 2017, vol. 139, pp.1–17

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Inter-group status; Intra-group status; Cooperation; Competition

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749597816301418


This research examines how the status of one’s group influences intra-group behavior and collective outcomes. Two experiments provide evidence that, compared to members of low-status groups, members of high-status groups are more concerned about their intra-group standing, which in turn can increase both the likelihood of competitive and cooperative intra-group behavior. However, whether the desire for intra-group standing manifests via competitive versus cooperative behavior depends on the relevance of the task to the group’s inter-group standing. When the task is not clearly relevant to the group’s status, members of high-status groups are more likely to engage in competitive behavior out of a desire to manage their intra-group status, which, in turn, leads to less desirable collective outcomes. However, when the group’s status is at stake, members of high-status groups seek intra-group status via cooperative behavior, leading to better collective outcomes.

My kids, your kids, our kids: What parents and the public want from schools

J. VALANT, D. NEWARK

Teachers College Record

2017, vol. 119, n°11

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines


Background/Context: School choice reforms could strengthen parents' influence on school behaviors, since schools must appeal to parents in order to operate. If parents' desires for schools differ from the broader public's desires for schools, then schools might pursue different goals and activities in systems emphasizing school choice. One popular hypothesis is that schoolchoosing parents, more than the public, want schools to prioritize their own students' private interests over more collective social, economic, and political interests. Purpose/Objective: We compare parents' desires for their own children's schools with the U.S. public's desires for public schools. We make these comparisons with respect to the abstract goals that schools pursue, as well as schools' more tangible behaviors. Population/Participants/Subjects: We administered an online survey to nationally representative samples of parents and adults. We administered a second online survey to a national sample of adults. Intervention/Program/Practice: The article consists of two studies. Study 1 compares parents' and the public's beliefs about which abstract goals schools should prioritize. Respondents were randomly assigned to consider either schools in their community, schools around the country, or, if they had children, their own children's schools. They chose from goals that prioritized their students' professional achievement ("Private Success"), the economy's needs ("Shared Economic Health"), and more collective social and political needs ("Democratic Character"). Study 2 compares parents' and the public's beliefs about how schools should actually behave. Respondents were randomly assigned to consider either schools in their community, schools around the country, or their own children's schools. We asked about the basic structure and content of the school day, how schools should teach, and how to evaluate school performance. Research Design: The studies consist of randomized experiments and related statistical analysis. Findings/Results: We find remarkably little difference between parents' desires for their children's schools and the public's desires for public schools. This is true both for the abstract goals that schools pursue and for schools' more tangible behaviors. Conclusions/Recommendations: Our findings suggest that the hypothesis that parents want schools to focus on their students' private success at the expense of more collective goals is oversimplified. It may be, for example, that parents want their children to be well rounded in ways that also serve more collective social, political, and economic interests. We observe divisions in Americans' views of the goals that schools should pursue, but these divisions are more connected to their political affiliation than parent status (with Republicans more focused than Democrats on Private Success)

Optimizing Multi-Team System Behaviours: Insights from Modelling Team Communication

D. KENNEDY, A. SOMMER, P. NGUYEN

European Journal of Operational Research

avril 2017, vol. 258, n°1, pp.264–278

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Behavioural operations, Project management, Multi-team systems, Mixed integer linear optimization

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377221716306750


To better manage behavioural operations in project management, we demonstrate the value of quantitative model-based approaches in examining behaviours and generating insights for managerial research and practice. We focus on organizational members’ behaviours and interactions on large-scale projects using multi-team systems (MTS). While MTS invoke different behaviours than simpler team systems, research insights have lagged on MTS due to the complexity and resource intensity of capturing the multitude of behaviours and interactions by human subjects in real-world situations. Thus, MTS provides an apt context to demonstrate the mechanics of mathematically modelling human behaviour and conducting virtual experiments via mixed-integer linear optimization to understand the way to meet operational objectives. Virtual experimentation is used to explore communication behaviours that unfold under different levels of project complexity and interdependence when time, cost, and quality operational objectives are considered independently or collectively. The results suggest that the type of communication plan set by project managers needs to change according to project attributes and objectives (maximize quality, minimize cost or minimize time). Moreover, this paper demonstrates the benefits of using operations research methods to assess behavioural patterns in an operational setting and establish propositions for targeted research in the field. In conclusion, benefits and limitations are put forth about the way Behavioural OR expands the traditional toolkit of human subject researchers in operations and beyond.

Towards an Integrated Framework of Professional Partnership Performance: the Role of Formal Governance and Strategic Planning

M. LANDER, P. P. M. A. R. HEUGENS, J. VAN OOSTERHOUT

Human Relations

novembre 2017, vol. 70, n°11, pp.1388-1414

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : client attraction and retention, human capital, managed professional business, professional partnership, reputational capital


Conventional wisdom identifies human capital and organizational reputation as the critical resources explaining professional partnership (PP) performance. PPs have increasingly adopted organizational practices like strategic planning and formal governance, however, which have long been alien in highly professionalized contexts. In order to test the influence of both these classic resources and the newly adopted practices on PP performance, as well as the mediating mechanisms— that is, client attraction and retention as well as organizational efficiency—through which this influence is channeled, we develop an integrated theoretical framework of PP performance. We test the resulting hypotheses using survey and objective data collected on 196 Dutch law firms. Our findings provide new insights into the drivers of PP performance and the complex interrelationships between PP resources and newly adopted practices

For a dollar, would you...? How (we think) money affects compliance with our requests

V. K. BOHNS, D. NEWARK, A. Z. XU

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

mai 2016, vol. 134, pp.45-62

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Compliance; Money; Morality; Prosocial behavior; Social influence; Social prediction

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749597816302102


Research has shown a robust tendency for people to underestimate their ability to get others to comply with their requests. In five studies, we demonstrate that this underestimation-of-compliance effect is reduced when requesters offer money in exchange for compliance. In Studies 1 and 2, participants assigned to a no-incentive or monetary-incentive condition made actual requests of others. In both studies, requesters who offered no incentives underestimated the likelihood that those they approached would grant their requests; however, when requesters offered monetary incentives, this prediction error was mitigated. In Studies 3–5, we present evidence in support of a model to explain the underlying mechanism for this attenuation effect. Studies 3 and 4 demonstrate that offering monetary incentives activates a money-market frame. In Study 5, we find that this activation reduces the discomfort associated with asking, allowing requesters to more accurately assess the size of their request and, consequently, the likelihood of compliance

Contacts  

Département Management et Ressources Humaines

Campus HEC Paris
1, rue de la Libération
78351 Jouy-en-Josas cedex
France

Faculté  

Philippe GAUD

Management et Ressources Humaines

Voir le CV

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