Asymmetries in judgments of moral blame and praise: The role of perceived metadesires

D. Pizarro, E. L. UHLMANN, P. Salovey

Psychological Science

mai 2003, vol. 14, n°3, pp.267-272

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

An important consideration in judging the blameworthiness (or praiseworthiness) of an action is whether the agent had sufficient control over it. In three experiments, we investigated judgments of moral blame and praise elicited when individuals were presented with vignettes describing actions that were performed either carefully and deliberately or impulsively and uncontrollably. Experiment 1 uncovered an asymmetry between judgments of positive versus negative actions'negative impulsive actions elicited a discounting of moral blame, but positive impulsive actions did not elicit a discounting of moral praise. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that this asymmetry arises because individuals judge agents on the basis of their metadesires (the degree to which the agents embrace or reject the impulses leading to their actions). Individuals assume that an agent would embrace an uncontrollable positive impulse, and reject an uncontrollable negative impulse

Causal deviance and the attribution of moral responsibility

D. Pizarro, E. L. UHLMANN, P. Bloom

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

novembre 2003, vol. 39, n°6, pp.653-660

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Are current theories of moral responsibility missing a factor in the attribution of blame and praise? Four studies demonstratedthat even when cause, intention, and outcome (factors generally assumed to be sufficient for the ascription of moral responsibility)are all present, blame and praise are discounted when the factors are not linked together in the usual manner (i.e., cases of ''causaldeviance''). Experiment 4 further demonstrates that this effect of causal deviance is driven by intuitive gut feelings of right andwrong, not logical deliberation

CEO stock options: The silent dimension of ownership

J. McGuire, E. MATTA

Academy of Management Journal

avril 2003, vol. 46, n°2, pp.255-265

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

This study examines the ownership and performance implications of the exercise of CEO stock options. We find that the exercise of stock options has no impact on the levels of CEO equity and no relationship with subsequent firm performance. The decision to exercise stock options appears to reflect risk-balancing concerns rather than expectations for future performance.

Cultural Impact on European Staffing Policies in Sales Management


International Journal of Research in Marketing

mars 2003, vol. 20, n°1, pp.67-85

Départements : Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS), Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Sales force management, Staffing decisions, International human resource management, Cultural values, Managerial values

This paper tests propositions derived from the sales and human resource management literature about the adoption of sales personnel recruitment and promotion policies in an international context through a comparative study of managers in six European countries. The results indicate that the regional culture of decision-makers has a strong effect on their choice of recruitment and promotion candidates. This study attempts to identify key sales personnel characteristics for international staffing policies.

Entre égalité et inégalités : les droits des femmes dans la sphère professionnelle


L'Année Sociologique

2003, vol. 53, n°1, pp.143-173

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Cet article traite des droits des femmes dans la sphère professionnelle. A une logique protectrice a succédé une logique égalitaire qui s'est traduite par différentes formulations du principe d'égalité: égalité des droits, égalité de traitement, égalité des chances. Les progrès d'une exigence en matière d'égalité comme ceux qui sont liés à une meilleure définition de la notion de discrimination ne doivent pas masquer les difficultés qui demeurent quant à l'appréhension des phénomènes d'inégalité hommes-femmes dans la sphère du travail salarié. Ainsi, les stratégies d'action de nature à rétablir l'égalité peuvent aller de mesures contraignantes à des mesures qui s'appuient sur la négociation entre acteurs. Quant aux droits des femmes dans la sphère professionnelle, ils continuent de se jouer sur un double terrain, celui de l'égalité professionnelle au sens propre du terme et celui d'une articulation plus égalitaire entre sphère professionnelle et sphère familiale et entre les différents temps sociaux.

Equal Employment Policy in France: Symbolic Support and a Mixed Record


Review of Policy Research

automne 2003, vol. 20, n°3, pp.423-442

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

This article analyzes the policy framework for and the implementation of equal employment policy in France. After presenting the equal employment policy framework and the role of state feminist women's policy offices in its development, the author discusses the limited support for positive action strategies among French firms and unions. The implementation of equal employment policy has had a mixed record, often limited to symbolic gestures rather than concrete change. Contributing to this symbolic dynamic are the effects of reconciliation policy and the impact of the development of part-time work on women employment. The analysis argues that reconciliation policy has not for its part always privileged an egalitarian set of measures that facilitates the sharing of family and domestic work between men and women. The article asserts that the development of part-time work has contradicted equal employment policy efforts and has effectively contributed to maintaining women's positions in low-paying and marginal jobs. The article concludes that despite an apparently comprehensive policy framework for equal employment policy in France, the situation of women workers appears to be following two tracks: a top-tier track of qualified, relatively well-paid women who are able to have a career and to reconcile family and work, and a lower-tier track of less-skilled, lower-paid women workers who continue to be marginalized on the labor market.

Initier une innovation organisationnelle : tactiques d'influence et processus de persuasion mis en oeuvre par les champions

F. Grima, G. TREPO

Revue de Gestion des Ressources Humaines

octobre-décembre 2003, n°49, pp.23-36

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

This article explores how a champion promotes an organizational innovation and sells it to the top of the organization. Forty-one champions were interviewed. Network theory is used, as well as sociology, impression management, transformational leadership and influence tactics. The human resource implications are shown for developing this population and getting the most of it in the medium- and long-term

Land Reform and Agricultural Reform Policies in Romania's Transition to the Market Economy: Overview and Assessment

P. Aligica, A. DABU

Eastern European Economics

septembre-octobre 2003, vol. 41, n°5, pp.49-69

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

This article explores in depth the key legislative and policy elements of the Romanian agrarian reform, surveys their historical and social context, articulates the ideas and beliefs that guided them, and assesses their success and repercussions. This detailed overview reveals that above and beyond any structural constraints, legacies of the past, or interest group pressures, the relative failure of the Romanian agriculture reform could be largely traced to a set of assumptions and beliefs that inspired the policymakers in charge of the process: (a) The erroneous assumption that land restitution and private ownership of the land could by themselves solve the problems of low productivity; (b) the paradoxical resilience of the idea that large farm size was the ideal form of organization of production in agriculture; (c) the misplaced belief that rural markets were to emerge naturally as a result of the reintroduction of private property rights over land; and (d) the notion that agricultural policies can be designed in isolation from the overall development of the other sectors of the economy.

Le spectacle sportif malgré tout


Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie

printemps 2003, vol. IX, n°20, pp.195-203

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Le théâtre et le sport

G. AMADO, P. Avron, M. Hidalgo

Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie

2003, vol. IX, n°20, pp.183-194

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines