A Concept of Progress for Normative Economics


Economics and Philosophy

2006, vol. 22, pp.19-54

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision, GREGHEC (CNRS)

The paper discusses the sense in which the changes undergone by normative economics in the 20th century can be said to be progressive. A simple criterion is proposed to decide whether a sequence of normative theories is progressive. This criterion is put to use on the historical transition from the new welfare economics to social choice theory. The paper reconstructs this classic case, and eventually concludes that the latter theory was progressive compared with the former. It also briefly comments on the recent developments in normative economics and their connection with the previous two stages

Empirical Distributions of beliefs under imperfect monitoring

O. Gossner, T. TOMALA

Mathematics of Operations Research

février 2006, vol. 31, n°1, pp.13-31

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Stochastic process, Signals, Entropy, Repeated games

Let (xn)n be a process with values in a finite set X and law P, and let yn = f(xn) be a function of the process. At stage n, the conditional distribution pn = P(xn | x1,…,xn-1), element of ¿ = ¿(X), is the belief that a perfect observer, who observes the process online, holds on its realization at stage n. A statistician observing the signals y1,…,yn holds a belief en = P(pn | x1,…,xn) ¿ ¿(¿) on the possible predictions of the perfect observer. Given X and f, we characterize the set of limits of expected empirical distributions of the process (en) when P ranges over all possible laws of (xn)n

Empirical Similarity

I. GILBOA, O. Lieberman, D. Schmeidler

Review of Economics and Statistics

2006, vol. 88, pp.433-444

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Equilibrium uniqueness with perfect complements

E. Solan, N. VIEILLE

Economic Theory

août 2006, vol. 28, n°3, pp.721-726

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Equilibrium uniqueness, Perfect complements

We study a model in which each of finitely many agent cares about a given subset of finitely many goods. We provide minimal conditions that ensure the existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium price vector - a price vector for which supply meets demand

L'analytique et le synthétique en Economie


Recherches Economiques de Louvain


Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision, GREGHEC (CNRS)

L'article applique à la micro-économie une distinction classique en philosophie du langage, celle des propositions analytiques et synthétiques. Un article ultérieur la rapprochera de la distinction épistémologique des connaissances a priori et a posteriori. On commence par reprendre les définitions principales de l'analytique et du synthétique, et l'on rejette les objections célèbres que Quine a dirigées contre elles. On montre ensuite comment ces définitions opèrent sur la théorie des biens Giffen et des biens substituts. La distinction de l'analytique et du synthétique permet de clarifier des options que les micro-économistes laissent implicites, au risque de tomber dans des pièges sémantiques; en l'occurrence, elle vient renforcer la critique déjà faite de la définition hicksienne des substituts. A titre annexe, on montre que la méthodologie économique identifie incorrectement les propositions analytiques aux tautologies, et les propositions synthétiques à celles qui sont testablesMots-Clefs: Analytique, synthétique, Quine, biens Giffen, substituts, Hicks, théorie du consommateur

Measurement of the reliability of sensory panel performances

J. Latreille, E. Mauger, L. Ambroisine, M. TENENHAUS, M. Vincent, S. Navarro, C. Guinot

Food Quality and Preference

juillet 2006, vol. 17, n°5, pp.369-375

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision

Mots clés : Analysis of variance with mixed effects, Disagreement, Individual scaling, Reliability, Sensitivity values, Sensory panel

A reliable panel is required in sensory analysis. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new methodology based on a mixed linear model to test various criteria of a panel’s reliability. The developed method allows testing the global performance of the panel, and the individual performances of each judge in terms of discriminability and repeatability, severity or laxity, and agreement or disagreement with the panel. All the computations are implemented in an SAS® program. The results of the analysis are summarised in a set of tables in such a way that the panel leader can easily check and compare the judge performances

Positive dependence and weak convergence

A. Colangelo, A. Müller, M. SCARSINI

Journal of Applied Probability

2006, vol. 43, n°1, pp.48-59

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision

A more general definition of MTP2 (multivariate total positivity of order 2) probability measure is given, without assuming the existence of a density. Under this definition the class of MTP2 measures is proved to be closed under weak convergence. Characterizations of the MTP2 property are proved under this more general definition. Then a precise definition of conditionally increasing measure is provided, and closure under weak convergence of the class of conditionally increasing measures is proved. As an application we investigate MTP2 properties of stationary distributions of Markov chains, which are of interest in actuarial science

Regret minimization under partial monitoring

G. STOLTZ, N. Cesa-Bianchi, G. Lugosi

Mathematics of Operations Research

2006, vol. 31, pp.562-580

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Repeated games, Hannan consistency, Imperfect monitoring, Internal regret

We consider repeated games in which the player, instead of observing the action chosen by the opponent in each game round, receives a feedback generated by the combined choice of the two players. We study Hannan consistent players for these games, that is, randomized playing strategies whose per-round regret vanishes with probability one as the number of game rounds goes to infinity. We prove a general lower bound for the convergence rate of the regret, and exhibit a specific strategy that attains this rate for any game for which a Hannan consistent player exists

Self-reported skin sensitivity in a general adult population in France: Data of the SU.VI.MAX cohort

C Guinot, D Malvy, E Mauger, K Ezzedine, J Latreille, L Ambroisine, M. TENENHAUS, P Préziosi, F Morizot, P Galan, S Hercberg, E Tschachler

Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology

avril 2006, vol. 20, n°4, pp.380-390

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision

Mots clés : Epidemiological study, Factor analysis method, Self-administered questionnaire, Self-reported skin sensitivity, Sun sensitivity

Objective This study aimed to examine the frequency of self-assessed facial skin sensitivity and its different patterns, and the relationship with gender and sun sensitivity in a general adult population.Methods A standardized 11-item questionnaire investigating reactions experienced during the past year was developed. The questions explored different patterns of skin sensitivity: pattern I (blushing related to vascular reactivity), pattern II (skin reactions to certain environmental conditions), pattern III (skin reactions after substance contact), and for women pattern IV (‘breakout of spots’ related to menstrual cycle). Additional items were addressed for women and men, including sun sensitivity. The questionnaire was administered to a large middle-aged population involved in the ‘Supplément en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants’ (SU.VI.MAX) cohort.Results Sensitive facial skin was reported by 61% of the women (n = 5074) and 32% of the men (n = 3448), and the frequency decreased with age. The frequency of patterns I, II and III was greater for women (78, 72 and 58%, respectively) than for men (56, 48 and 28%) of comparable classes of age. The frequency of pattern IV was reported by 49% of premenopausal women, and skin reactions after shaving by 41% of the men. Sun sensitivity was found to be a major component of skin sensitivity. Factor analysis showed that individuals with fair phototype frequently evoked reactions associated with pattern I, and skin redness and burning sensations were related to certain environmental conditions (pattern II).Conclusion Skin sensitivity is a common concern that declines with age and is relevant for men as well as for women.

Some positive dependence stochastic orders

A. Colangelo, M. SCARSINI, M. Shaked

Journal of Multivariate Analysis

2006, vol. 97, n°1, pp.46-78

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision

In this paper we study some stochastic orders of positive dependence that arise when the underlying random vectors are ordered with respect to some multivariate hazard rate stochastic orders, and have the same univariate marginal distributions. We show how the orders can be studied by restricting them to copulae, we give a number of examples, and we study some positive dependence concepts that arise from the new positive dependence orders. We also discuss the relationship of the new orders to other positive dependence orders that have appeared in the literature