A spiral process model of technological innovation in a developing country: The case of Samsung

K. Park, M. Ali, F. CHEVALIER

African Journal of Business Management

juillet 2011, vol. 5, n°13, pp.5162-5178

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

This article presents a spiral process model of indigenous technological innovation capabilities (ITICs) that shows how firms in a developing country initiate, imitate, improve and make innovative technologies. Any technological innovation passes through four stages: (1) technological innovation (TI), (2) transfer of technology (imitation), (3) adaptive technological innovation (improvement), and finally (4) indigenous technological innovation (local innovation). This paper reviews models and frameworks related to technological innovation capabilities (TICs) which are proposed in the context of developing countries. It then analyzes the Late-Starter, Samsung Electronics as a case in point to illustrate how Korean firms have built their ITICs. The model shows four developmental stages at Samsung Electronics as: (a) Entrance of foreign companies into the Korean market and their refusal to transfer their technologies to Samsung initiating its ITICs, (b) Samsung started TICs by means of reversing the engineering of imported foreign technologies and transfer of technology, (c) it improved TI by means of adaptive technological innovation strategy and finally (4) the capability to establish their own ITICs, to become one of the leading companies in the world which challenges firms from advanced countries in the global market. The paper also highlights the developmental changes in the semiconductor (DRAM technology) of Korea. Keeping past experiences in consideration, we conclude that this model provides useful implications for newly industrializing countries (NICs) following the same pattern of technological development.Author Keywords: Indigenous technology innovation capabilities; innovation in developing countries; spiral process model of technological innovation; Samsung Electronics KoreaKeyWords Plus: CATCHING-UP; PERSPECTIVE

Cultural distance and expatriate job satisfaction


International Journal of Intercultural Relations

janvier 2011, vol. 35, n°1, pp.49-60

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Despite its strong impact in domestic settings on job performance, organizational commitment, stress, and turnover intentions, job satisfaction has received little attention in the literature on expatriates. This paper analyzes the predictors of job satisfaction that may arise in an expatriate context. Drawing on the cultural distance perspective, we propose that the national cultural distance, supervisor''s nationality, host-country language proficiency, expatriate type, and company nationality are important determinants of expatriate job satisfaction. Survey results from 148 expatriates in Japan demonstrate that national cultural distance, supervisor''s nationality, and expatriate type have a statistically significant influence on expatriate job satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications are provided.CROSS-cultural differencesFOREIGN workersJOB satisfactionORGANIZATIONAL commitmentLANGUAGE & cultureNATIVE languageLANGUAGES in contactLANGUAGES, Modern

Implicit Puritanism in American moral cognition

E. L. UHLMANN, T. Poehlman, D. Tannenbaum, J. Bargh

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

mars 2011, vol. 47, n°2, pp.312-320

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Moral intuitions, American culture, Puritanism, Protestantism, Implicit

Three studies provide evidence that the judgments and behaviors of contemporary Americans are implicitly influenced by traditional Puritan-Protestant values regarding work and sex. American participants were less likely to display traditional values regarding sexuality when implicitly primed to deliberate, as opposed to intuition and neutral primes. British participants made judgments reflecting comparatively liberal sexual values regardless of prime condition (Study 1). Implicitly priming words related to divine salvation led Americans, but not Canadians, to work harder on an assigned task (Study 2). Moreover, work and sex values appear linked in an overarching American ethos. Asian-Americans responded to an implicit work prime by rejecting revealing clothing and sexually charged dancing, but only when their American cultural identity was first made salient (Study 3). These effects were observed not only among devout American Protestants, but also non-Protestant and less religious Americans.Keywords: Moral intuitions; American culture; Puritanism; Protestantism; Implicit

Infusing creativity into crisis management: An essential approach today

A. SOMMER, C. Pearson

Organizational Dynamics

janvier-mars 2011, vol. 40, n°1, pp.27-33

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Changes in today's work environment are raising the bar when it comes to crisis management. To capture the nature of potential threats that seem to redefine the “unthinkable,” from pandemics to hijackings to insider trading, we use very recent examples to remind readers of the essence and value of organizational crisis management. With an eye on the global, information-rich, instantaneous visibility surrounding organizations today, we promote the need for creative thinking in crisis detection, planning and response. Based on our own experimental research findings, we conclude with five practical tips for boosting creativity in your own organization's crisis management approaches.

Internal consultants: why clients use them and for what benefits ?

F. Grima, G. TREPO

European Management Review

avril 2011, vol. 29, n°2, pp.144-154

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Internal consulting, Client-consultant relationship, Critical success factors, Management consulting

accepté le 5 janvier 2011This study explores the dynamic of the client-consultant relationship as perceived by the former. Our research is based on four French case studies. It was possible to examine clients' and consultants' perceptions, as well as those of neutral parties such as senior

Measuring the efficacy of leaders to assess information and make decisions in a crisis: The C-LEAD Scale

C. Hadley, T. Pittinsky, A. SOMMER, W. Zhu

Leadership Quarterly

août 2011, vol. 22, n°4, pp.633-648

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Crisis leadership, Public health and safety, Information assessment, Decision making

Based on the literature and expert interviews, we developed a new measure, the C-LEAD scale, to capture the efficacy of leaders to assess information and make decisions in a public health and safety crisis. In Studies 1 and 2, we found that C-LEAD predicted decision making difficulty and confidence in crisis contexts better than measures of general leadership efficacy and procedural crisis preparedness. In Study 3, our measure of crisis leader efficacy predicted motivation to lead in a crisis, voluntary crisis leader role-taking, and decision making accuracy as a leader. Together, the studies promote the initial construct validity of the C-LEAD scale and a deeper understanding of the factors involved in effective crisis leadership.

Moral Signals, Public Outrage, and Immaterial Harms

D. Tannenbaum, E. L. UHLMANN, D. Diermeier

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

novembre 2011, vol. 47, n°6, pp.1249-1254

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Moral judgment, Moral character, Signaling, Informational value

Public outrage is often triggered by “immaterially” harmful acts (i.e., acts with relatively negligible consequences). A well-known example involves corporate salaries and perks: they generate public outrage yet their financial cost is relatively minor. The present research explains this paradox by appealing to a person-centered approach to moral judgment. Strong moral reactions can occur when relatively harmless acts provide highly diagnostic information about moral character. Studies 1a and 1b first demonstrate dissociation between moral evaluations of persons and their actions—although violence toward a human was viewed as a more blameworthy act than violence toward an animal, the latter was viewed as more revealing of bad moral character. Study 2 then shows that person-centered cues directly influence moral judgments—participants preferred to hire a more expensive CEO when the alternative candidate requested a frivolous perk as part of his compensation package, an effect mediated by the informativeness of his request

Performance-related reward systems (PPRS) in Japan: Practices and Preferences in Nordic Subsidiaries


The International Journal of Human Resource Management

juillet 2011

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

accepté le 9 avril 2010An increasing number of companies in Japan have implemented performance-related reward systems (PRRS) due to the demerits in seniority-based reward systems, economic slowdown, increasing global competition, and an aging workforce. This study focuses on reward systems and preferences in foreign subsidiaries in Japan, an area that has been overlooked. In contrast to the convergence view that best practices are universally applicable, interviews conducted in 60 Nordic subsidiaries show that PRRS have faced considerable resistance while seniority-based reward systems have proved robust, especially in older subsidiaries. Implications for practice and suggestions for future studies are provided.non publié sous affiliation HEC - à ne pas comptabiliser - paru en juillet 2011

Post-hoc rationalism in science


Behavioral and Brain Sciences

août 2011, vol. 34, n°4

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

In advocating Bayesian Enlightenment as a solution to Bayesian Fundamentalism, Jones & Love (J&L) rule out a broader critique of rationalist approaches to cognition. However, Bayesian Fundamentalism is merely one example of the more general phenomenon of Rationalist Fundamentalism: the tendency to characterize human judgments as rational and optimal in a post hoc manner, after the empirical data are already known

Recruiting channels in foreign firms in Japan


Zeitschrift fur Betriebswirtschaft


Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Despite increasing interest in recruitment and selection, surprisingly little is known regarding recruiting practices and channels in foreign subsidiaries. This study focuses on the utilization and success of recruiting channels of foreign subsidiaries in Japan. Interviews with 40 company managers show that recruitment strategies in foreign subsidiaries progress through different stages. Lacking social networks but possessing substantial financial resources, small and newly established subsidiaries rely primarily on headhunters. However, larger subsidiaries with longer presence in Japan tend to diversify and localize their recruitment channels. Owing partly to a reduction in ethnocentric attitudes, foreign subsidiaries in certain industries are capable of attracting high-quality job candidates. Overall, the interviews revealed that referrals are the best recruiting channel for the production of high-quality candidates who fit in well, exhibit high company loyalty, and perform well on the job.