American psychological isolationism


Review of General Psychology

2012, vol. 16, n°4, pp.381-390

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : American culture, Protestantism, Implicit puritanism, Moral values, Isolationism

The United States possesses a distinctive cultural mindset characterized by a lack of regard for and even lack of awareness of the perspectives of other countries, coupled with a passionate desire to spread American values throughout the world. We term this mindset American psychological isolationism. Like American moral values more generally, this psychological outlook has its roots in America's unique religious and cultural history. The American Puritans' religious zeal contributes to America's ideological self-certainty and lack of regard for the values of others. At the same time, America's sense of divine mission in spreading its values, whether other countries like it or not, is traceable to the Puritans' view of themselves as a “shining city on a hill” destined to save all the world

Blood is thicker: Moral spillover effects based on kinship

E. L. UHLMANN, L. Zhu, D. Pizarro, P. Bloom


août 2012, vol. 124, n°2, pp.239-243

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Moral cognition, Spillover effects, Kinship, Blood ties, Psychological essentialism

Three empirical studies document the intuitive spillover of moral taint from a person who engages in immoral acts to another individual who is related by ties of blood kinship. In Study 1, participants were more likely to recommend that the biological grandchild of a wrongdoer, compared to a non-biological grandchild, help the descendants of his grandfather’s victims. In Study 2, participants were more willing to hold two long-lost identical twins in custody for a crime committed by one twin than to hold two perfect look-alikes for a crime committed by one look-alike. Study 3 provides direct evidence that spillover effects based on blood kinship are manifested in an intuitive sense of moral taint

Desirable ethical climates impacts on organizational effectiveness: Moderations by firm characteristics


African Journal of Business Management

2012, vol. 6, n°14, pp.4848-4857

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

This empirical study examines the relationships between ethical climates and organizational effectiveness moderated possibly by job satisfaction (JS), organizational commitment (OC), and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The sample consisted of 383 employees in four companies operating in South Korea. The study focused on desirable ethical climates, rather than all the nine types of Victor and Cullen, along with the firm characteristics. The results found that the impacts of desirable ethical climates are effective and positive, except on OC. Contrary to the antecedent research consequences, the impact of social responsibility climate on OC is negative. In addition, the results indicate that the firm's characteristics (size and nationality) differentiate their impacts on organizational effectiveness especially, on the factors of OC. Key words: Desirable ethical climate, firm characteristics, organizational effectiveness, organizational commitment.

Getting Explicit About the Implicit: A Taxonomy of Implicit Measures and Guide for Their Use in Organizational Research

E. L. UHLMANN, K. Leavitt, J. Menges, M. Howe, J. Koopman, R. Johnson

Organizational Research Methods

octobre 2012, vol. 15, n°4, pp.553-601

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Implicit measures, Indirect measures, Nonconscious processes, Automaticity

Accumulated evidence from social and cognitive psychology suggests that many behaviors are driven by processes operating outside of awareness, and an array of implicit measures to capture such processes have been developed. Despite their potential application, implicit measures have received relatively modest attention within the organizational sciences, due in part to barriers to entry and uncertainty about appropriate use of available measures. The current article is intended to serve as an implicit measurement “toolkit” for organizational scholars, and as such our goals are fourfold. First, we present theory critical to implicit measures, highlighting advantages of capturing implicit processes in organizational research. Second, we present a functional taxonomy of implicit measures (i.e., accessibility-based, association-based, and interpretation-based measures) and explicate assumptions and appropriate use of each. Third, we discuss key criteria to help researchers identify specific implicit measures most appropriate for their own work, including a discussion of principles for the psychometric validation of implicit measures. Fourth, we conclude by identifying avenues for impactful “next-generation” research within the organizational sciences that would benefit from the use of implicit measures

L'activité au coeur de l'intervention psychosociologique / The interaction towards a sociopsychological approach

D. Lhuilier, G. AMADO

Bulletin de Psychologie

mai-juin 2012, vol. 65 (3), n°519, pp.263-276

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Cet article propose de préciser une démarche psychosociologique, plaçant l'activité au c'ur d'une intervention, liée à une situation de crise et à une commande de traitement de la souffrance au travail. Après avoir décrit la commande et son contexte institutionnel (une association de défense des droits de l'homme), les auteurs présentent les principes de base de leur démarche, puis décrivent les processus à l''uvre dans leur intervention, ainsi que la dynamique de l'une des séances. Le cas rapporté ici permet de souligner la fécondité de l'entrée, par l'activité, dans son contexte organisationnel, ainsi que son rôle médiateur dans l'articulation entre vie psychique, pratique professionnelle et fonctionnement organisationnel.

Masculinity, status, and subordination: Working for a gender atypical supervisor causes men to lose status

V. Brescoll, E. L. UHLMANN, C. Moss-Racusin, L. Sarnell

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

janvier 2012, vol. 48, n°1, pp.354-357

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Status, Masculinity, Gender stereotyping, Organisation, Discrimination

Occupying gender stereotype-incongruent roles can lead individuals to lose status and earn a lower salary. The present research examined whether merely working for a supervisor in a gender-atypical occupational role leads a subordinate to lose status. Two studies found that male subordinates of gender deviants (i.e., a female supervisor in a masculine domain or a male supervisor in a feminine domain) were accorded lower status and were paid less than male subordinates of supervisors in gender-congruent roles (i.e., a female supervisor in a feminine domain or a male supervisor in a masculine domain). However, the status of female subordinates was unaffected by working for a gender atypical supervisor. Moreover, the status loss for male subordinates was mediated by a perceived lack of masculinity. Thus, establishing the male subordinate's masculine credentials eliminated the bias

Mindless, harmless, and blameworthy

D. Pizarro, D. Tannenbaum, E. L. UHLMANN

Psychological Inquiry

avril-juin 2012, vol. 23, n°2, pp.185-188

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

My culture made me do it: Lay theories of responsibility for automatic prejudice

E. L. UHLMANN, B. Nosek

Social Psychology

2012, vol. 43, n°2, pp.108-113

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Judgments of responsibility, Motivated reasoning, Self-affirmation theory, Attributional ambiguity, Cultural socialization, Automaticity, Prejudice, Stereotyping

The present research examined the effects of egocentric motivations on individuals' explanations for how their automatic racial prejudices came into being. The majority of participants reported experiencing biased thoughts, feelings, and gut reactions toward minorities which they found difficult to consciously control, and they attributed such biases to cultural socialization. Of particular interest, ego-threatened participants were significantly more likely to attribute their automatic racial biases to their culture and significantly less likely to attribute such biases to themselves. Results suggest that attributing one's racial biases to cultural socialization can be a defensive, motivated process aimed at diminishing personal responsibility. *Egocentrism; *Motivation; *Prejudice; *Racism; *Responsibility; Judgment; Socialization; Stereotyped Attitudes; Whites

Organizational Transactive Memory Systems: Review and Extension


European Psychologist


Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

The transactive memory system (TMS) concept has been extended from dyads and groups to organizations. While organizational TMS literature helps to understand how employees locate and utilize information based on their awareness of 'who knows what' and 'who knows who,' conceptual development is beneficial because TMSs has been extended to organizations without clear definitions and levels-of-analysis rationale. Drawing from the social psychology and network literature, this paper identifies several aspects requiring further conceptual attention, and defines organizational TMSs as overlapping networks of interdependent work groups that use each other as external cognitive aids to accomplish shared tasks. Suggestions for managing and measuring organizational TMSs are provided.

Sales-Marketing Interface in Saudi Arabia: A Commentary


Journal of Business Research

septembre 2012, vol. 65, n°9, pp.1298-1300

Départements : Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS), Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Marketing and sales interface, Emerging countries, Organizational marketing

This commentary essay discusses recent research conducted by Malshe, Al-Khatib, Al-Habib, and Ezzi (2012) and identifies areas where future research is needed. Their study extends our knowledge about the marketing and sales interface in Saudi Arabia and provides evidence of organizational mechanisms that appear to be culture bond. This paper reviews interesting considerations stemming from this article.