L'économie allemande lors du deuxième mandat d'Angela Merkel 2009 - 2013


Allemagne d'Aujourd'hui

octobre-décembre 2013, n°206, pp.22-32

Départements : Langues et Cultures

Phonetic Metaphor and the Limits of Sound Symbolism


Names: A Journal of Onomastics

décembre 2013, vol. 61, n°4, pp.189-199

Départements : Langues et Cultures

Mots clés : Fónagy, Ivan: La Métaphore en phonétique and La Vive voix, Genette, Gérard: Mimologiques: Voyage en Cratylie, Gender in names and acts of nomination, Literary onomastics, Le Guin, Ursula K.: A Wizard of Earthsea and The Tombs of Atuan, Phonetic metaphor, Names in fantasy literature, Sound symbolism

Evocative as it is elusive, the sound-symbolism of names tends to be a highly subjective affair, more the stuff of poetic fancy than objective critical analysis. Literary criticism, however, demands a rigorous and more objective approach, which is precisely what the ideas of Gérard Genette and Ivan Fónagy can provide. Where the former explores the limits of sound symbolism, the latter gives a cogent explanation for how, within those limits, this linguistic phenomenon actually works thanks to what he calls phonetic metaphor. In addition to elaborating a concrete framework in which to study the relations between sound and sense in literary onomastics, Fónagy’s ideas open up new vistas for exploring the relationships between names, gender, affect and the body. Names in the fantasy novels of Ursula K. Le Guin illustrate the explanatory power of phonetic metaphor as a critical concept in onomastics

What Makes the Names of Middle-earth So Fitting? Elements of Style in the Namecraft of J. R. R. Tolkien

Christopher ROBINSON

Names: A Journal of Onomastics

juin 2013, vol. 61, n°2, pp.65-74

Départements : Langues et Cultures

Mots clés : J. R. R. Tolkien, Literary onomaturgy, Literary onomastics, Names in fantasy literature

What makes a name ‘fitting’? Or, in closely related formulations, what makes a name ‘sound right’ or ‘ring true’? From the Cratylus to present-day studies in literary onomastics, the usual answer is that a name is fitting, right, or true for the person, place, or thing that bears it. The names in J. R. R. Tolkien’s fiction are fitting in this sense, reflecting by way of their source words, sound symbolism, or etymology some characteristic of their designees. At the same time, however, Tolkien insists that a name fit not only its designee, but also the phonological and morphological style of the nomenclature to which it belongs, as well as the linguistic scheme of his invented world. These elements of style are determined at the level of the nomenclature as a whole, independently from concerns with the motivation of individual names. The personal and place names of Middle-earth are thus fitting in more than the usual sense