Acting professional: An exploration of culturally bounded norms against nonwork role referencing


Journal of Organizational Behavior

août 2013, vol. 34, n°6, pp.866-886

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Hiring evaluations, Multicultural environments, Professional norms, Role referencing, U.S. culture

This article presents three studies examining how cross-cultural variation in assumptions about the appropriateness of referencing nonwork roles while in work settings creates consequential impressions that affect professional outcomes. Study 1 reveals a perceived norm limiting the referencing of nonwork roles at work and provides evidence that it is a U.S. norm by showing that awareness of it varies as a function of tenure living in the United States. Studies 2 and 3 examine the implications of the norm for evaluations of job candidates. Study 2 finds that U.S. but not Indian participants negatively evaluate job candidates who endorse nonwork role referencing as a strategy to create rapport and shows that this cultural difference is largest among participants most familiar with norms of professionalism, those with prior recruiting experience. Study 3 finds that corporate job recruiters from the United States negatively evaluate candidates who endorse nonwork role referencing as a means of building rapport with a potential business partner. This research underlines the importance of navigating initial interactions in culturally appropriate ways to facilitate the development of longer-term collaborations and negotiation success

Boarding the Aircraft: Trust Development Amongst Negotiators of a Complex Merger

M. LANDER, L. Kooning

Journal of Management Studies

janvier 2013, vol. 50, n°1, pp.1-30

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : M&A, Negotiations, Process Study, Trust

We explore trust development in the context of an international merger negotiation. Based on in-depth interviews with chief negotiators of the Air France-KLM merger we contribute to existing theory by showing that trust develops in three interrelated domains: personal, process and outcome. Progressively, trust develops in all domains on the basis of antecedents that differ between phases and domains. Distinguishing between different domains facilitates analysis of trust asymmetry and the co-existence of trust and distrust, as well as the influence of trust in interorganizational relationships

Change and stability interaction processes in SMEs: a comparative case study


Journal of Organizational Change Management

2013, vol. 26, n°2, pp.370-422

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Case studies, Change, Change management, ISO 9000 series, Mexico, Small firms, Stability

The aim of this paper is to explore interactions between change and stability during the implementation of a specific change initiative (ISO 9000). It attempts to develop a theoretical framework on change and stability management in small firmsDesign/methodology/approach – This research uses a process approach based on retrospective comparative case study methodology. Data collection in the six companies lasted over a year. This gives the opportunity to contrast failed change initiatives against successful ones.Findings – Two models emerged from this approach; they support the notion that change and stability could be complementary during the different phases of the change initiative the authors analyzed. The findings show that total absence of stability variables in the change initiative could have negative effect on results.Research limitations/implications – The research is based on a multiple case study approach, which limits the generalizability of the findings.Originality/value – This is one of the first studies that applies and empirically tests the change and stability relation in small firms

Committed to Professionalism: Organizational responses of Mid-tier Accounting firms to conflicting institutional logics

M. LANDER, B. A. S. Koene, S. Linssen

Accounting Organizations and Society

février 2013, vol. 38, n°2, pp.130-148

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

We study how mid-tier accounting firms deal with changes in their institutional environment that resulted in a shift in emphasis from the trustee logic to the commercial logic. We find that these mid-tier firms selectively adopt practices related to the commercial logic, while retaining a principal commitment to the trustee logic. Interviews with high level informants in these firms show how specific strategic choice opportunities serve as independent critical events framing practice-adoption decisions. Main strategic issues for the mid-tier firms relate to the changing role of the accountant and changes in organizational structure and practices. As these issues fundamentally challenge characteristics of their professional identity, there is internal resistance against this transformation. Non-partnered accountants mainly challenge new roles that upset their extant work routines, whereas partners resist changes affecting their autonomy. These types of resistance directly impact the strategic organizational responses of the accounting firms to institutional pressures

Do Women Choose Different Jobs from Men? Mechanisms of Application Segregation in the Market for Managerial Workers


Organization Science

mai-juin 2013, vol. 24, n°3, pp.737-756

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Gender segregation, Hiring, Job applications, Supply side, Matching, Careers, Financial Services industry, Gender roles, Identification, Work–life balance

This paper examines differences in the jobs for which men and women apply in order to better understand gender segregation in managerial jobs. We develop and test an integrative theory of why women might apply to different jobs than men. We note that constraints based on gender role socialization may affect three determinants of job applications: how individuals evaluate the rewards provided by different jobs, whether they identify with those jobs, and whether they believe that their applications will be successful. We then develop hypotheses about the role of each of these decision factors in mediating gender differences in job applications. We test these hypotheses using the first direct comparison of how similarly qualified men and women apply to jobs, based on data on the job searches of MBA students. Our findings indicate that women are less likely than men to apply to finance and consulting jobs and are more likely to apply to general management positions. These differences are partly explained by women’s preference for jobs with better anticipated work–life balance, their lower identification with stereotypically masculine jobs, and their lower expectations of job offer success in such stereotypically masculine jobs. We find no evidence that women are less likely to receive job offers in any of the fields studied. These results point to some of the ways in which gender differences can become entrenched through the long-term expectations and assumptions that job candidates carry with them into the application process.

It pays to be Herr Kaiser: Germans with noble-sounding surnames more often work as managers


Psychological Science

décembre 2013, vol. 24, n°12, pp.2437-2444

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Associative processes, Organizations, Social cognition

In the field study reported here (N = 222,924), we found that Germans with noble-sounding surnames, such as Kaiser (“emperor”), König (“king”), and Fürst (“prince”), more frequently hold managerial positions than Germans with last names that either refer to common everyday occupations, such as Koch (“cook”), Bauer (“farmer”), and Becker/Bäcker (“baker”), or do not refer to any social role. This phenomenon occurs despite the fact that noble-sounding surnames never indicated that the person actually held a noble title. Because of basic properties of associative cognition, the status linked to a name may spill over to its bearer and influence his or her occupational outcomes

Les processus psychiques au sein des groupes de travail : au-delà de Bion et de Pichon-Rivière


Nouvelle Revue de Psychosociologie

printemps 2013, vol. 15, pp.163-182

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Anxiétés, hypothèses de base, groupe de travail, processus inconscients, tâche, activité

Cet article vise à explorer les processus psychiques au sein des groupes de travail. En partant des recherches pionnières du psychanalyste anglais Bion et du psychanalyste argentin Pichon-Rivière, l’auteur montre que les anxiétés sous-jacentes à la réalisation de la tâche décrites par ces auteurs n’ont pas nécessairement un caractère général dans la mesure où elles ont été observées principalement dans des groupes de formation et de thérapie. D’où sa proposition de phénomènes inconscients complémentaires dès lors que la tâche présente une dimension opératoire et que le groupe de travail est inséré dans un contexte organisationnel. Dans une dernière partie, l’auteur détaille les capacités psychologiques individuelles sollicitées par le travail en groupe et les perspectives, en termes de formation et d’intervention, que son approche implique

Money is essential: Ownership intuitions are linked to physical currency



mai 2013, vol. 127, n°2, pp.220-229

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Money, Essentialism, Contagion, Ownership intuitions, Property, Fungibility

Due to basic processes of psychological essentialism and contagion, one particular token of monetary currency is not always interchangeable with another piece of currency of equal economic value. When money loses its physical form it is perceived as 'not quite the same' money (i.e., to have partly lost the original essence that distinguished it from other monetary tokens), diminishing its intuitive link with its original owner. Participants were less likely to recommend stolen or lost money be returned when it had been subsequently deposited in an electronic bank account, as opposed to retaining its original physical form (Studies 1a and 1b). Conversely, an intuitive sense of ownership is enhanced through physical contact with a piece of hard currency. Participants felt the piece of currency a person had originally lost should be returned to him rather than another piece of currency of equivalent value, even when they did not believe he would be able to tell the difference and considered distinguishing it from other money illogical. This effect was reduced when the currency had been sterilized, wiping it clean of all physical traces of its previous owner (Studies 2a, 2b, and 3)

Need Someone’s Help? Ask the Person Who Just Turned You Down (interview)


Harvard Business Review

décembre 2013, pp.34-35

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Daniel A. Newark and his fellow researchers at Stanford had 19 university students each stop 15 strangers on campus and ask two favors. The first was “Would you fill out a short survey?” and the second, “Would you drop a letter at the post office for me?” The students seeking help had predicted that, by and large, people who refused the initialrequest would refuse the next one. But in fact, a significant proportion of the people who declined to fill out the survey agreed to the letter drop

The effects of system-justifying motives on endorsement of essentialist explanations for gender differences


Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

décembre 2013, vol. 105, n°6, pp.891-908

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Biological essentialism, Essentialism, Gender, Stereotyping, System justification

People have a fundamental motive to view their social system as just, fair, and good and will engage in a number of strategies to rationalize the status quo (Jost & Banaji, 1994). We propose that one way in which individuals may "justify the system" is through endorsement of essentialist explanations, which attribute group differences to deep, essential causes. We suggest that system-justifying motives lead to greater endorsement of essentialist explanations because those explanations portray group differences as immutable. Study 1 employed an established system threat manipulation. We found that activating system-justifying motives increases both male and female participants' endorsement of essentialist explanations for gender differences and that this effect is mediated by beliefs in immutability. In Study 2, we used a goal contagion manipulation and found that both male and female participants primed with a system-justifying goal are significantly more likely to agree with essentialist explanations for gender differences. Study 3 demonstrated that providing an opportunity to explicitly reject a system threat (an alternative means of satisfying the goal to defend the system) attenuates system threat effects on endorsement of essentialist explanations, further suggesting that this process is motivated. Finally, Studies 4a and 4b dissociated the type of cause (biological vs. social) from whether group differences are portrayed as mutable versus immutable and found that system threat increases endorsement of immutable explanations, independent of the type of cause