Articles

Efficient purchaser incentive when dealing with suppliers implementing continuous improvement plans

L. KERBACHE, C. VAN DELFT

International Transactions in Operational Research

juillet 2014, vol. 21, n°4, pp.673-701

Départements : Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Continuous improvement, Dynamic programming, Purchaser incentives, Stochastic decision process


This paper presents incentive schemes in the framework of a collaborative purchasing cost reduction process with a supplier implementing a continuous improvement plan. Using a stochastic decision process formulation, we analyze the structure of the optimal policy and characterize its numerical robustness through numerical applications solved by dynamic programming. Then, we analyze two purchaser incentive schemes observed in practice. First, we describe some theoretical properties of the policies associated with these two schemes (schemes I and II) and show that these policies exhibit nonoptimal structures. Second, we estimate the quantitative loss for typical parameter values and, in particular, we show that for certain businesses this loss is significant. Then, we propose two easy-to-implement improvements (schemes III and IV), which result in near-optimal solutions and a significant impact on purchasing cost performances

Emergence of Power Laws in Online Communities: The Role of Social Mechanisms and Preferential Attachment

S. JOHNSON, S. FARAJ, S. KUDARAVALLI

MIS Quarterly

septembre 2014, vol. 38, n°3, pp.795-823

Départements : Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Online communities, scale-free, power-law distribution, preferential attachment, social exchange, reciprocity, simulation

http://misq.org/misq/downloads/download/article/1113/


Online communities bring together individuals with shared interest in joint action or sustained interaction. Power lawdistributions of user popularity appear ubiquitous in online communities but their formation mechanisms are not wellunderstood. This study tests for the formation of power law distributions via the mechanisms of preferential attachment,least efforts, direct reciprocity, and indirect reciprocity. Preferential attachment, where new entrants favor connectionswith already popular participants, is the predominant explanation suggested by prior literature. Yet, the attribution ofpreferential attachment or any other mechanism as a single unitary reason for the emergence of power law distributionsruns contrary to the social nature of online communities and does not account for diversity of participants’ motivation.Agent-based modeling is used to test if a single social mechanism alone or multiple mechanisms together can generatepower law distributions observed in online communities. Data from 28 online communities is used to calibrate, validate,and analyze the simulation. Simulated communication networks are randomly generated according to parameters foreach hypothesis. The fit of the power law distribution in the model testing subset is then compared against the fit forthese simulated networks. The major finding is that, in contrast to research in more general network settings, neitherpreferential attachment nor any other single mechanism alone generates a power law distribution. Instead, a blendedmodel of preferential attachment with other social network formation mechanisms was most consistent with power lawdistributions seen in online communities. This suggests the need to move away from stylized explanations of networkemergence that rely on single theories toward more highly socialized and multitheoretic explanations of communitydevelopment

Intra-organizational information asymmetry in offshore ISD outsourcing

S. M. NUWANGI, D. SEDERA, S. C. SRIVASTAVA, G. MURPHY

VINE

2014, vol. 44, n°1, pp.94-120

Départements : Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Offshore outsourcing, Agency theory, Information asymmetry, Information system development


Contemporary offshore Information System Development (ISD) outsourcing is becoming even more complex. Outsourcing partner has begun ‘re-outsourcing’ components of their projects to other outsourcing companies to minimize cost and gain efficiencies. This paper aims to explore intra-organizational Information Asymmetry of re-outsourced offshore ISD outsourcing projects.Design/methodology/approach - An online survey was conducted to get an overall view of Information Asymmetry between Principal and Agents (as per the Agency theory).Findings - Statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences between the Principal and Agent on clarity of requirements, common domain knowledge and communication effectiveness constructs, implying an unbalanced relationship between the parties. Moreover, our results showed that these three are significant measurement constructs of Information Asymmetry.Research limitations/implications - In our study we have only considered three main factors as common domain knowledge, clarity of requirements and communication effectiveness as three measurement constructs of Information Asymmetry. Therefore, researches are encouraged to test the proposed constructs further to increase its precision.Practical implications - Our analysis indicates significant differences in all three measurement constructs, implying the difficulties to ensure that the Agent is performing according to the requirements of the Principal. Using the Agency theory as theoretical view, this study sheds light on the best contract governing methods which minimize Information Asymmetry between the multiple partners within ISD outsourcing organizations.Originality/value - Currently, to the best of our knowledge, no study has undertaken research on Intra-organizational Information Asymmetry in re-outsourced offshore ISD outsourcing projects

Introducing competition in healthcare services: the role of private care and increased patient mobility

D. ANDRITSOS, C. S. TANG

European Journal of Operational Research

mai 2014, vol. 234, n°3, pp.898-909

Départements : Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : OR in government, Health policy, Game theory

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2013.11.022


We study the operational implications from competition in the provision of healthcare services, in the context of national public healthcare systems in Europe. Specifically, we study the potential impact of two alternative ways through which policy makers have introduced such competition: (i) via the introduction of private hospitals to operate alongside public hospitals and (ii) via the introduction of increased patient choice to grant European patients the freedom to choose the country they receive treatment at. We use a game-theoretic framework with a queueing component to capture the interactions among the patients, the hospitals and the healthcare funders. Specifically, we analyze two different sequential games and obtain closed form expressions for the patients’ waiting time and the funders’ reimbursement cost in equilibrium. We show that the presence of a private provider can be beneficial to the public system: the patients’ waiting time will decrease and the funders’ cost can decrease under certain conditions. Also, we show that the cross-border healthcare policy, which increases patient mobility, can also be beneficial to the public systems: when welfare requirements across countries are sufficiently close, all funders can reduce their costs without increasing the patients’ waiting time. Our analysis implies that in border regions, where the cost of crossing the border is low, “outsourcing” the high-cost country’s elective care services to the low-cost country is a viable strategy from which both countries’ systems can benefit

Le déploiement d’innovations inter-filiales au sein d’une multinationale

S. JOUINI, F. CHARUE-DUBOC

Management International

2014, vol. 18, pp.42-58

Départements : Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Déploiement, Innovation, Multinationales, inter-filiale, connaissances tacites / Deployment, Innovation, Multinational corporation, inter-subsidiary, tacit knowledge


Les filiales d’une multinationale doivent concilier adaptation locale et intégration globale. Pour analyser cela, nous proposons la notion de déploiement d’innovations inter-filiales que nous définissons comme l’enchaînement des commercialisations d’une innovation par des filiales situées dans des contextes locaux différenciés, et nécessitant ainsi à chaque fois son adaptation. A partir d’une analyse longitudinale de cinq déploiements d’innovations dans une multinationale, nous mettons en évidence quatre facteurs critiques que nous relions à des dispositifs de construction et de partage de connaissances. Nous discutons ainsi le modèle théorique de transfert de connaissances de Tallmann et Chacar (2011) et en précisons les conditions de mise en oeuvre

Linking Process Quality and Resource Usage: An Empirical Analysis

D. ANDRITSOS, C. TANG

Production and Operations Management

décembre 2014, vol. 23, n°12, pp.2163-2177

Départements : Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : healthcare operations;healthcare policy;pay-for-performance


Motivated by an increasing adoption of evidence-based medical guidelines in the delivery of medical care, we examine whether increased adherence to such guidelines (typically referred to as higher process quality) is associated with reduced resource usage in the course of patient treatment. In this paper, we develop a sample of US hospitals and use cardiac care as our context to empirically examine our questions. To measure a patient's resource usage we use the total length of stay, which includes any additional inpatient stay necessitated by unplanned readmissions within thirty days after initial hospitalization. We find evidence that higher process quality, and more specifically its clinical (as opposed to its administrative) dimensions, are associated with a reduction in resource usage. Moreover, the standardization of care that is achieved via the implementation of medical guidelines, makes this effect more pronounced in less focused environments: higher process quality is more beneficial when the cardiac department's patient population is distributed across a wider range of medical conditions. We explore the implications of these findings for process-oriented pay-for-performance (P4P) programs, which tie the reimbursement of hospitals to their adherence to evidence-based medical guidelines

L’interaction du capital social et de la gestion des ressources humaines dans les entreprises familiales pérennes

S. MIGNON, S. JOUINI

Management International

printemps 2014, vol. 18, n°3, pp.82-95

Départements : Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : cohesion, continuity, social capital, sustainability, values cohesión, continuidad, interacciones, perennidad, valores, capital social cohésion, continuité, interactions, pérennité, valeurs


L'objet de cet article est de comprendre comment la gestion des ressources humaines des entreprises familiales pérennes s'articule à la formation d'un capital social spécifique à ce type d'entreprises. L'étude s'appuie sur 12 études de cas approfondies parmi les plus grandes entreprises familiales françaises. L'analyse des discours a permis de mettre en évidence des pratiques récurrentes et singulières favorables à la formation d'un capital familial. Au-delà de ce constat, on peut s'interroger sur la possibilité de transposer les principes de continuité et de dimension collective aux entreprises non familiales, en d'autres termes de conduire les hommes selon des valeurs permettant à l'entreprise de retrouver sa vocation à créer du lien social

Managing Retention in Service Relationships

I. POPESCU, Sam AFLAKI

Management Science

février 2014, vol. 60, n°2, pp.415-433

Départements : Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Customer satisfaction, Lifetime value optimization, Retention, Service quality, Service relationships


In a repeat business context, past experiences with a service provider affect customers' decisions to renew their contract. How should a strategic firm manage customized service over time to maximize the long-term value from each customer relationship? We propose a dynamic model that relies on behavioral theories and empirical evidence to capture the effect of past service experiences on service quality expectations, customer satisfaction, and retention. Although firms can benefit from managing service expectations at the beginning of a relationship, we find that varying service in the long run is not optimal. Behavioral regularities explain the structure of optimal service policies and limit the value of responsive service. Loss aversion expands the range of optimal constant policies; however, if satisfying experiences are more salient, then firms should constantly vary service levels. Loyal or high-margin customers need not warrant better service; those who anchor less on past service experiences do—provided that retention is improved by better past experiences. The effect of customer memory on service levels is determined by whether habituation or rather goodwill drives defection decisions.Behavioral regularities explain the structure of optimal service policies and limit the value of responsive service. Loss aversion expands the range of optimal constant policies; however, if satisfying experiences are more salient then rms should constantly vary service levels. Loyal or high-margin customers need not warrant better service; those who anchor less on past service experiences do|provided that retention is improved by better past experiences. The eect of customer memory on service levels is determined by whether habituation or rather goodwill drives defection decisions

Multi-dimensional Context-aware Social Network Architecture for Mobile Crowdsensing

X. XU, X. LI, E. NGAI, V. LEUNG, P. KRUCHTEN

IEEE Communications Magazine

2014, vol. 52, n°6

Départements : Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Optimal policy structure characterization for a two-period dual-sourcing inventory control model with forecast updating

A. A. CHEAITOU, C. VAN DELFT, Z. C. JEMAI, Y. DALLERY

International Journal of Production Economics

novembre 2014, vol. 157, pp.238-249

Départements : Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Inventory control, Forecast updating, Dual supply, Short life-cycle products, Optimal solution


A proposed single-product, stochastic, two-period inventory control model combines demand forecast updating with the flexibility of two supply sources. Demand is modeled by two independent, random variables over a two-period selling season. At the beginning of the first period, two quantities are ordered using two different supply options: a local supplier who delivers the ordered quantity immediately and a second supplier who delivers the ordered quantity at the beginning of the second period. The local supplier charges a higher cost per ordered unit. The model considers an initial inventory, so the decision maker has an opportunity at the beginning of the first period to return part of the available inventory to the supplier (or sell it in a parallel market). At the end of the first period, any unsatisfied demand is backlogged to be satisfied in the next period. At the beginning of the second period, exogenous market information updates the second-period demand forecast. According to this updated forecast and the actual inventory level, an additional quantity is ordered using the local procurement source or another quantity is returned to the supplier (or sold in a parallel market). With a dynamic programming approach, this research exhibits the structure of the optimal policy, characterized by order-up-to and salvage-up-to levels. The findings provide the structure of the second-period conditional optimal policy and analytical insights that characterize the first-period optimal policy. Furthermore, a numerical study reveals the impact of information quality on the optimal policy and the trade-off between the two procurement options


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