Articles

A helping hand is hard at work: Help-seekers' underestimation of helpers' effort

D. NEWARK, V. K. BOHNS, F. J. FLYNN

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

mars 2017, vol. 139, pp.18-29

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Help effort, Help-seeking, Social judgment, Prosocial behavior, Decision-making

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749597815302004


Whether people seek help depends on their estimations of both the likelihood and the value of getting it.Although past research has carefully examined how accurately help-seekers predict whether their helprequests will be granted, it has failed to examine how accurately help-seekers predict the value of thathelp, should they receive it. In this paper, we focus on how accurately help-seekers predict a key determinantof help value, namely, helper effort. In four studies, we find that (a) helpers put more effort intohelping than help-seekers expect (Studies 1–4); (b) people do not underestimate the effort others willexpend in general, but rather only the effort others will expend helping them (Study 2); and (c) thisunderestimation of help effort stems from help-seekers’ failure to appreciate the discomfort—in particular,the guilt—that helpers would experience if they did not do enough to help (Studies 3 & 4)

Effects of inter-group status on the pursuit of intra-group status

J. W. CHANG, Rosalind CHOW, Anita WOOLLEY

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

mars 2017, vol. 139, pp.1–17

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Inter-group status; Intra-group status; Cooperation; Competition

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749597816301418


This research examines how the status of one’s group influences intra-group behavior and collective outcomes. Two experiments provide evidence that, compared to members of low-status groups, members of high-status groups are more concerned about their intra-group standing, which in turn can increase both the likelihood of competitive and cooperative intra-group behavior. However, whether the desire for intra-group standing manifests via competitive versus cooperative behavior depends on the relevance of the task to the group’s inter-group standing. When the task is not clearly relevant to the group’s status, members of high-status groups are more likely to engage in competitive behavior out of a desire to manage their intra-group status, which, in turn, leads to less desirable collective outcomes. However, when the group’s status is at stake, members of high-status groups seek intra-group status via cooperative behavior, leading to better collective outcomes.

Optimizing Multi-Team System Behaviours: Insights from Modelling Team Communication

D. KENNEDY, A. SOMMER, P. NGUYEN

European Journal of Operational Research

avril 2017, vol. 258, n°1, pp.264–278

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Behavioural operations, Project management, Multi-team systems, Mixed integer linear optimization

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377221716306750


To better manage behavioural operations in project management, we demonstrate the value of quantitative model-based approaches in examining behaviours and generating insights for managerial research and practice. We focus on organizational members’ behaviours and interactions on large-scale projects using multi-team systems (MTS). While MTS invoke different behaviours than simpler team systems, research insights have lagged on MTS due to the complexity and resource intensity of capturing the multitude of behaviours and interactions by human subjects in real-world situations. Thus, MTS provides an apt context to demonstrate the mechanics of mathematically modelling human behaviour and conducting virtual experiments via mixed-integer linear optimization to understand the way to meet operational objectives. Virtual experimentation is used to explore communication behaviours that unfold under different levels of project complexity and interdependence when time, cost, and quality operational objectives are considered independently or collectively. The results suggest that the type of communication plan set by project managers needs to change according to project attributes and objectives (maximize quality, minimize cost or minimize time). Moreover, this paper demonstrates the benefits of using operations research methods to assess behavioural patterns in an operational setting and establish propositions for targeted research in the field. In conclusion, benefits and limitations are put forth about the way Behavioural OR expands the traditional toolkit of human subject researchers in operations and beyond.


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