Articles

A helping hand is hard at work: Help-seekers' underestimation of helpers' effort

D. NEWARK, V. K. BOHNS, F. J. FLYNN

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

mars 2017, vol. 139, pp.18-29

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Help effort, Help-seeking, Social judgment, Prosocial behavior, Decision-making

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749597815302004


Whether people seek help depends on their estimations of both the likelihood and the value of getting it.Although past research has carefully examined how accurately help-seekers predict whether their helprequests will be granted, it has failed to examine how accurately help-seekers predict the value of thathelp, should they receive it. In this paper, we focus on how accurately help-seekers predict a key determinantof help value, namely, helper effort. In four studies, we find that (a) helpers put more effort intohelping than help-seekers expect (Studies 1–4); (b) people do not underestimate the effort others willexpend in general, but rather only the effort others will expend helping them (Study 2); and (c) thisunderestimation of help effort stems from help-seekers’ failure to appreciate the discomfort—in particular,the guilt—that helpers would experience if they did not do enough to help (Studies 3 & 4)

Better together: using meta-analysis to explore complementarities between ecological and institutional theories of organization

M. LANDER, P. P. M. A. R. HEUGENS

Organization Studies

novembre 2017, vol. 38, n°11, pp.1573-1601

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0170840616677629


While sharing intellectual ancestry, organizational ecology and institutionalism are rarely used conjointly to explain population dynamics. A rapprochement would nevertheless be fruitful, as the parsimonious models developed by ecologists are better able to explain organizational founding and failure when enriched with institutional variables. We present a meta-analysis of density dependence theory, which predicts a non-monotonic relationship between population density and organizational vital events. We show that ecology and institutionalism are ‘better together’ by extending this ecological framework in four institutionalism-inspired ways. First, we show that the effects of density on organizational vital rates are moderated by two conceptions of time: ecological ‘clocks’ and institutional ‘eras’. Second, we argue that the socio-political legitimacy of organizational forms, a concept with strong institutional roots, exacerbates density-related founding while attenuating failure. Third, we illustrate how the emergence of prototypical categories in organizational fields can increase the magnitude of density effects. Fourth, we highlight how these socio-political legitimacy and categorization effects are conditioned by ecological clock time. We close by proposing a concise agenda for future research, aimed at finding a better balance between the generality and explanatory power of our most trusted organizational theories. © 2017, © The Author(s) 2017

Drift or alignment? A configurational analysis of law firms' ability to combine profitability with professionalism

M. LANDER, P. P . M. A. R. HEUGENS, J. H. VAN OOSTERHOUT

Journal of Professions and Organization

juillet 2017, vol. 4, n°2, pp.123-148

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

https://academic.oup.com/jpo/article-abstract/4/2/123/2960704?redirectedFrom=fulltext


Hybrid structures are the result of an adaptation process through which organizations come to adhere to the demands of the multiple logics they face. Yet many unanswered questions regarding the effects of hybridity on securing organizational goals remain. In this article, we focus on law firms, hybrids that have to reach the dual objectives of profits and professionalism, rooted in the commercial/managerial and professional/trustee logics, respectively. Drawing on the institutional logics, professional service firms, and configurational theory literatures, and using set-theoretic methods on survey data collected on 278 Dutch law firms, we explore how organizational design elements that are congruent with the aforementioned logics are combined and how they contribute to securing different organizational goals. We find evidence of different types of hybrid structures occurring alongside one another, which tend to score differently on the performance dimensions. First, dominant hybrids assure superior performance along either the profitability or the professionalism dimension. Second, certain hybrids have experienced slippage. Whereas these slipped hybrids outperform in one dimension, they underperform on the alternative dimension due to their excessive focus. We also find evidence of a few aligned configurations. These ensure above-average results along both outcome dimensions, either by adopting a balanced set of core practices or by achieving balance in their overall configuration. Finally, when faced with organizational contingencies that force law firms to adopt more formal practices, these aligned hybrids restore their configurational balance by adopting core practices rooted in the professional logic

Effects of inter-group status on the pursuit of intra-group status

J. W. CHANG, Rosalind CHOW, Anita WOOLLEY

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

mars 2017, vol. 139, pp.1–17

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Inter-group status; Intra-group status; Cooperation; Competition

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749597816301418


This research examines how the status of one’s group influences intra-group behavior and collective outcomes. Two experiments provide evidence that, compared to members of low-status groups, members of high-status groups are more concerned about their intra-group standing, which in turn can increase both the likelihood of competitive and cooperative intra-group behavior. However, whether the desire for intra-group standing manifests via competitive versus cooperative behavior depends on the relevance of the task to the group’s inter-group standing. When the task is not clearly relevant to the group’s status, members of high-status groups are more likely to engage in competitive behavior out of a desire to manage their intra-group status, which, in turn, leads to less desirable collective outcomes. However, when the group’s status is at stake, members of high-status groups seek intra-group status via cooperative behavior, leading to better collective outcomes.

My kids, your kids, our kids: What parents and the public want from schools

J. VALANT, D. NEWARK

Teachers College Record

2017, vol. 119, n°11

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines


Background/Context: School choice reforms could strengthen parents' influence on school behaviors, since schools must appeal to parents in order to operate. If parents' desires for schools differ from the broader public's desires for schools, then schools might pursue different goals and activities in systems emphasizing school choice. One popular hypothesis is that schoolchoosing parents, more than the public, want schools to prioritize their own students' private interests over more collective social, economic, and political interests. Purpose/Objective: We compare parents' desires for their own children's schools with the U.S. public's desires for public schools. We make these comparisons with respect to the abstract goals that schools pursue, as well as schools' more tangible behaviors. Population/Participants/Subjects: We administered an online survey to nationally representative samples of parents and adults. We administered a second online survey to a national sample of adults. Intervention/Program/Practice: The article consists of two studies. Study 1 compares parents' and the public's beliefs about which abstract goals schools should prioritize. Respondents were randomly assigned to consider either schools in their community, schools around the country, or, if they had children, their own children's schools. They chose from goals that prioritized their students' professional achievement ("Private Success"), the economy's needs ("Shared Economic Health"), and more collective social and political needs ("Democratic Character"). Study 2 compares parents' and the public's beliefs about how schools should actually behave. Respondents were randomly assigned to consider either schools in their community, schools around the country, or their own children's schools. We asked about the basic structure and content of the school day, how schools should teach, and how to evaluate school performance. Research Design: The studies consist of randomized experiments and related statistical analysis. Findings/Results: We find remarkably little difference between parents' desires for their children's schools and the public's desires for public schools. This is true both for the abstract goals that schools pursue and for schools' more tangible behaviors. Conclusions/Recommendations: Our findings suggest that the hypothesis that parents want schools to focus on their students' private success at the expense of more collective goals is oversimplified. It may be, for example, that parents want their children to be well rounded in ways that also serve more collective social, political, and economic interests. We observe divisions in Americans' views of the goals that schools should pursue, but these divisions are more connected to their political affiliation than parent status (with Republicans more focused than Democrats on Private Success)

Optimizing Multi-Team System Behaviours: Insights from Modelling Team Communication

D. KENNEDY, A. SOMMER, P. NGUYEN

European Journal of Operational Research

avril 2017, vol. 258, n°1, pp.264–278

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Behavioural operations, Project management, Multi-team systems, Mixed integer linear optimization

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377221716306750


To better manage behavioural operations in project management, we demonstrate the value of quantitative model-based approaches in examining behaviours and generating insights for managerial research and practice. We focus on organizational members’ behaviours and interactions on large-scale projects using multi-team systems (MTS). While MTS invoke different behaviours than simpler team systems, research insights have lagged on MTS due to the complexity and resource intensity of capturing the multitude of behaviours and interactions by human subjects in real-world situations. Thus, MTS provides an apt context to demonstrate the mechanics of mathematically modelling human behaviour and conducting virtual experiments via mixed-integer linear optimization to understand the way to meet operational objectives. Virtual experimentation is used to explore communication behaviours that unfold under different levels of project complexity and interdependence when time, cost, and quality operational objectives are considered independently or collectively. The results suggest that the type of communication plan set by project managers needs to change according to project attributes and objectives (maximize quality, minimize cost or minimize time). Moreover, this paper demonstrates the benefits of using operations research methods to assess behavioural patterns in an operational setting and establish propositions for targeted research in the field. In conclusion, benefits and limitations are put forth about the way Behavioural OR expands the traditional toolkit of human subject researchers in operations and beyond.

Semantic Networks and the Market Interface: Lessons from Luxury Watchmaking

F. GODART, K. CLAES

Research in the Sociology of Organizations

2017, vol. 53, pp.113-141

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Culture; embeddedness; network-domains; price; semantic networks; watchmaking

https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1108/S0733-558X20170000053006


The conception of markets as interfaces connecting semi-autonomous systems of producers and customers has led to an extensive use of social network analysis. So far, the network focus has been on connections among people, paying less attention to the crucial role played by connections between cultural elements (e.g., concepts, representations, ideas) in the way markets are formedand sustained. Such connections constitute “semantic networks” and are the focus of the present article. We attend to them by developing a network view of the cultural dimension of markets and apply it in an empirical setting where culture plays a crucial role luxury watchmaking to illustrate the impact of market semantic networks on a major outcome: price

Towards an Integrated Framework of Professional Partnership Performance: the Role of Formal Governance and Strategic Planning

M. LANDER, P. P. M. A. R. HEUGENS, J. VAN OOSTERHOUT

Human Relations

novembre 2017, vol. 70, n°11, pp.1388-1414

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : client attraction and retention, human capital, managed professional business, professional partnership, reputational capital

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0018726717700697


Conventional wisdom identifies human capital and organizational reputation as the critical resources explaining professional partnership (PP) performance. PPs have increasingly adopted organizational practices like strategic planning and formal governance, however, which have long been alien in highly professionalized contexts. In order to test the influence of both these classic resources and the newly adopted practices on PP performance, as well as the mediating mechanisms— that is, client attraction and retention as well as organizational efficiency—through which this influence is channeled, we develop an integrated theoretical framework of PP performance. We test the resulting hypotheses using survey and objective data collected on 196 Dutch law firms. Our findings provide new insights into the drivers of PP performance and the complex interrelationships between PP resources and newly adopted practices

Which boundaries? How mobility networks across countries and status groups affect the creative performance of organizations

A. SHIPILOV, F. GODART, J. CLEMENT

Strategic Management Journal

2017, vol. 38, n°6, pp.1232-1252

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : employee mobility; networks; foreign experi-ence; creative performance; boundary-spanning

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/smj.2602


Research summary: Losing key employees to competitors allows an organization to engage inexternal boundary-spanning activities. It may benefit the organization through access to external knowledge, but may also increase the risks of leaking knowledge to competitors. We propose that the destination of departed employees is a crucial contingency: benefits or risks only materialize when employees leave for competitors that differ from the focal organization along significant dimensions, such as country or status group. In the context of the global fashion i ndustry, we find that key employees’ moves to foreign competitors may increase (albeit at a diminishing rate) their former employers’ creative performance. Furthermore, firms may suffer from losing key employees to higher- or same-status competitors, but may benefit from losing them to lower-status competitors.Managerial summary:Losing key employees to competitors can provide organizations with access to external knowledge, but increase risks of leaking knowledge to competitors. We find that an organization’s access to external knowledge and its risks of knowledge leakage through employee mobility may be affected by whether its employees leave for competitors in a foreign country or in a different status group. In the context of the global fashion industry, we show that key employees’ moves to foreign competitors increase (up to a point) their former employers’ creative performance. Furthermore, firms may suffer from losing key employees to higher- or same-status competitors, but benefit from losing them to lower-status competitors. Hence, executives in creative industries and possibly beyond could welcome losing employees to competitors in foreign countries or to lower-status competitors


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