For a dollar, would you...? How (we think) money affects compliance with our requests


Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

mai 2016, vol. 134, pp.45-62

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Compliance; Money; Morality; Prosocial behavior; Social influence; Social prediction

Research has shown a robust tendency for people to underestimate their ability to get others to comply with their requests. In five studies, we demonstrate that this underestimation-of-compliance effect is reduced when requesters offer money in exchange for compliance. In Studies 1 and 2, participants assigned to a no-incentive or monetary-incentive condition made actual requests of others. In both studies, requesters who offered no incentives underestimated the likelihood that those they approached would grant their requests; however, when requesters offered monetary incentives, this prediction error was mitigated. In Studies 3–5, we present evidence in support of a model to explain the underlying mechanism for this attenuation effect. Studies 3 and 4 demonstrate that offering monetary incentives activates a money-market frame. In Study 5, we find that this activation reduces the discomfort associated with asking, allowing requesters to more accurately assess the size of their request and, consequently, the likelihood of compliance

Keeping positive and building strength: The role of affect and team leadership in developing resilience during an organizational crisis


Group and Organization Management

avril 2016, vol. 41, n°2, pp.172-202

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Organizational crisis, Leadership, Emotions, Resilience, Teams, Health care

During an organizational crisis in health care, we collected multilevel data from 426 team members and 52 leaders. The results of hierarchical linear modeling describe the influence of leader behavior on team members’ resilience, which is primarily through affective mechanisms. Specifically, transformational leadership was associated with greater levels of positive affect and lower levels of negative affect, which in turn predicted higher resilience among team members. Inverse effects were found for the passive form of management-by-exception (MBE) leadership. Contrary to expectation, no relationship was found between active MBE leadership and affect. The implications for leaders and team members to foster positive affect and resilience during a crisis are discussed

Task complexity and shared value orientation: exploring the moderators of a social dilemma in team social networks


Industrial and Corporate Change

octobre 2016, vol. 25, n°5, pp.739-756

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Z13 - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Social and Economic Stratification M10 - General L14 - Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation; Networks

Although it is often in the interest of individuals to implement networking strategies that erode their team’s social capital, it is unclear under what conditions such a social dilemma is more or less likely to occur. We focus on brokerage and closure as two dimensions of social structure where tension arises between individual networking strategies and team performance. Adopting a multilevel perspective, and focusing on closed teams with the presence of a clear leader, we analyze two complementary moderators of this social dilemma that are fundamental to the existence of teams: the task complexity facing the team under consideration, and the individualist versus collectivist shared value orientation of its members. We find that an increase in either of these makes the social dilemma more likely to occur. Counterintuitive conclusions pertaining to these moderators are discussed

The Politics of Achievement Gaps: U.S. Public Opinion on Race-Based and Wealth-Based Differences in Test Scores


Educational Researcher

2016, vol. 45, n°6, pp.331-346

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : achievement gap; educational policy; equity; experimental research; politics; poverty; race; survey research

For decades, researchers have documented large differences in average test scores between minority and White students and between poor and wealthy students. These gaps are a focal point of reformers’ and policymakers’ efforts to address educational inequities. However, the U.S. public’s views on achievement gaps have received little attention from researchers, despite playing an important role in shaping policymakers’ behaviors. Drawing on randomized experiments with a nationally representative sample of adults, we explore the public’s beliefs about test score gaps and its support for gap-closing initiatives. We find that Americans are more concerned about—and more supportive of proposals to close—wealth-based achievement gaps than Black-White or Hispanic-White gaps. Americans also explain the causes of wealthbased gaps more readily

What determines crime rates? An empirical test of integrated economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior


The Social Science Journal

juin 2016, vol. 53, n°2, pp.247-262

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Crime, Property crime, Violent crime, Deterrence, Integrated model

Research on crime has by no means reached a definitive conclusion on which factors are related to crime rates. We contribute to the crime literature by providing an integrated empirical model of economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior and by using a very comprehensive set of economic, social as well as demographic explanatory variables. We use panel data techniques to estimate this integrated crime model for property and violent crime using the entire population of all 100 counties in North Carolina for the years 2001–2005. Both fields contribute to the explanatory power of the integrated model. Our results support the economic explanation of crime with respect to the deterrent effect of the probabilities of arrest and imprisonment concerns, as well as the time allocation model of criminal activities. In contrast, the integrated model seems to reject the impact of the severity of punishment on crime levels. With respect to the sociological theories of crime, we find most support for the social disorganization theory and for the routine activity theory. Finally, we find differences between property and violent crimes, mostly explained by the sociological models.