Articles

A Model of Free Riding Incentives in Franchise Chains

J. LEE

Seoul Journal of Business

juin 2004, vol. 10, n°1, pp.81-104

Départements : Marketing


This paper explains the free riding phenomenon in franchise chains where all chain members benefit mutually from the positive network externality of service quality. Starting from a simple formal model with two independent outlets, we present the analytical form of the optimal reaction function in which two outlets interact through service quality externalities. With complete information, no outlet finds any interest in free riding on service quality at the expense of the other. Contrary to previous findings, the positive demand externality increases the optimal service quality through interactions among chain members with complete information. By relaxing the complete information assumption, we demonstrate that incompleteness of information is the main source of free riding incentives. Contrary to the prevailing explanation based on agency theory, incompleteness of information leads outlets facing a smaller externality to free ride more on service quality compared to its optimal level with complete information.

Alla ricerca delle determinanti dei livelli di prezzo online

F. SOTGIU, F. Ancarani

Micro & Macro Marketing

août 2004, n°2, pp.359-374

Départements : Marketing


Approche anthropologique des mutations et de la distinction public/privé

R. LAUFER

Politiques et Management Public

septembre 2004, vol. 22, n°3, pp.1-42

Départements : Marketing


Comprendre et mesurer la valeur du point de vue du consommateur

Y. EVRARD, P. Aurier, G. N'Goala

Recherche et Applications en Marketing

2004, vol. 19, n°3, pp.1-20

Départements : Marketing


Cet article propose une intégration des travaux sur la valeur de consommation et un cadre conceptuel reposant sur la théorie fonctionnelle des attitudes dans lequel nous identifions six composantes de la valeur de consommation (utilitaire, connaissance, stimulation expérientielle, lien social, expression de soi, spirituelle). Par ailleurs, nous proposons un modèle intégrateur expliquant la valeur globale (ratio entre bénéfices et sacrifices) par les composantes de la valeur de consommation. Une application au cinéma en salle nous permet de valider la mesure des six composantes de la valeur de consommation, puis d'étudier leur influence sur la valeur globale. Trois composantes apparaissent dominantes : utilitaire (qualité du son et de l'image), stimulation expérientielle et lien social ; elles expliquent 32 % de la variance de la valeur globale. Enfin, nous observons que la satisfaction cumulée se distingue de la valeur globale, en termes de mesure et de champ de significations, la première ayant une nature plus affective que la secondeCet article propose une intégration des travaux sur la valeur de consommation et un cadre conceptuel reposant sur la théorie fonctionnelle des attitudes dans lequel nous identifions six composantes de la valeur de consommation (utilitaire, connaissance, stimulation expérientielle, lien social, expression de soi, spirituelle). Par ailleurs, nous proposons un modèle intégrateur expliquant la valeur globale (ratio entre bénéfices et sacrifices) par les composantes de la valeur de consommation. Une application au cinéma en salle nous permet de valider la mesure des six composantes de la valeur de consommation, puis d'étudier leur influence sur la valeur globale. Trois composantes apparaissent dominantes : utilitaire (qualité du son et de l'image), stimulation expérientielle et lien social ; elles expliquent 32 % de la variance de la valeur globale. Enfin, nous observons que la satisfaction cumulée se distingue de la valeur globale, en termes de mesure et de champ de significations, la première ayant une nature plus affective que la seconde

Consumer Responses to Product Placement in Television Sitcoms: Genre, Sex, and Consumption

B. Stern, C. A. RUSSELL

Consumption, Markets & Culture

décembre 2004, vol. 7, n°4, pp.371-386

Départements : Marketing


The paper presents a study of consumer responses to products placed in a sitcom, "Ads R' Us," created as a stimulus to ascertain the influence of a television program's genre and male/female respondents' sex on responses. Textual analysis is used to analyze sitcoms, a category of programs created in accordance with genre conventions, the structural framework that influences responses to media vehicles. First-generation feminist reading theory, which challenged the patriarchal assumptions mostly unquestioned in the US until the early 1960s, is used to analyze responses produced by second-generation respondents, who came of age a generation later, after the women's liberation movement led to socio-cultural changes. The study draws from multidisciplinary theory and integrates stimulus-side/response-side research to enhance understanding of the text-context-consumer relationship. Findings indicate that second-generation responses to placed products are problematized by the coexistence of patriarchal and feminist perspectives that color male/female readings of sitcoms

Consumer Views Of Service Classification in the USA and France

W. ULAGA, M. Lee, C. E Young, L. F Cunningham

Journal of Services Marketing

2004, vol. 18, n°6, pp.421-432

Départements : Marketing


*CONSUMERS*CULTURE*CUSTOMER services*SERVICE industries -- Marketing Geographic Terms: FRANCEUNITED States Author-Supplied Keywords: ClassificationCross-cultural managementDimensional measurementUnited States of AmericaFranceServices Abstract: In the services marketing literature, few service classifications are based on how customers view services, and fewer of these have been validated cross-culturally. To fill this gap, this research presents the results of a study that examined how US and French customers perceived and classified a set of 13 services based on multidimensional scaling. Service classifications were developed on a perceptual space where the actual services were mapped for two countries, the USA and France. The results of the study suggest that there are two underlying dimensions that explain approximately 80 percent of the total variance in service perceptions and classifications. The dimensions and correlations for the classifications and services displayed many consistencies and some differences among American and French consumers. Directions for future academic research and managerial implications are cited and discussed.

Consuming Television: Connectedness and Community in Broadcast Media

C. A. RUSSELL, H. Schau

Advances in Consumer Research

2004, vol. 31, n°1, pp.544-548

Départements : Marketing


This section presents abstracts of studies on consumer research. The study, Exploring the Relationship Between Television Program Connectedness and Social Network Dynamics, by Cristel A. Russell and Andrew T. Norman, focuses on the relationship between program consumption and social interaction. The study, Bonding Through Cultural Subversion: Consumers' Connectedness With the The Simpsons, by Mary Finley Wolfibarger and Hope Jensen Schau, demonstrates the manner in which viewers of the animated television show The Simpsons, bond in online communities through subversively explicating notions of hyper-commercialization and commodity fetishism. The study, If You Can't Find It, Create It: An Analysis of Consumer Engagement with Xena: Warrior Princess and the Creation of Consumer-Generated Subtext, by Hope Jensen Schau and Albert M. Muñiz Jr., examines a particular consumer-generated subtext of the television series, Xena: Warrior Princess, to find how proponents of mainstream and subtext interpretations interact and impact the Xena brand

Développement durable, capitalisme et morale

L. FRANÇOIS, P. Chaigneau

Risques & Management International

avril 2004, n°3, pp.7-8

Départements : Marketing


Do not Wait to Reveal the Brand Name

C. A. RUSSELL, H. Honea, W. Baker

Journal of Advertising

automne 2004, vol. 33, n°3, pp.77-86

Départements : Marketing


Is advertising more effective when the advertised brand name is revealed at the onset of an advertising message or when it is withheld until the end of the message? Given the propensity of advertising to withhold the brand name, advertisers apparently presume the latter, perhaps because they believe that the practice sustains attention to the advertisement. The network model of memory and related theories of associative learning imply superior advertising effectiveness when the brand name is presented at the beginning of an advertisement. An experiment was conducted to test this proposition. Several award-winning television advertisements were remastered to reveal the brand name either at the beginning or at the end of the spot. The results support the prediction that advertising is more effective when the brand name appears at the beginning of the advertisement. Evidence is consistent with the conclusion that the effect was caused by strengthening the memory association between the brand name and the evaluative implications of advertising content, not by any effect of brand-name placement on advertising liking, memory for the brand name, or accessibility to advertisement content

Executive Insights: Real Differences Between Local and International Brands: Strategic Implications for International Marketers

I. Schuiling, J.-N. KAPFERER

Journal of International Marketing

2004, vol. 12, n°4, pp.97-123

Départements : Marketing


In this article, the authors question whether the elimination of local brands represents a lost opportunity for companies. In the current context of globalization, firms have concentrated their efforts on international brands. As a result, they have restructured their international brand portfolios and have removed many successful local brands. Not only has the fast-moving consumer goods sector experienced this trend but the banking, insurance, oil, and retailing sectors, among others, have as well. International brands might offer undisputable advantages, but local brands have traditionally built close relationships with consumers over the years, representing years of investment in their markets. The authors' objective is to improve the understanding of the real differences between local and international brands. To date, no study has been conducted in this area. Managers are regularly confronted with the question of putting together the best portfolio. They must decide not only how to develop their international brands but also which local brands to build or to eliminate. In this article, the authors present their exploratory research of the extensive Young and Rubicam brand database 'Brand Asset Valuator.' They reexamine 744 food industry brands on the basis of interviews conducted with 9739 people across the four largest countries in Europe (United Kingdom, Germany, France, and Italy). The results indicate that local brands benefit from strong brand equity. Local brands benefit more from higher consumer awareness than international brands do, and they enjoy a strong image. In addition, they benefit more not only from customer perceptions of good quality but also from perceptions of better value and trust than do international brands. The authors find that trust represents a significant advantage and creates a unique relationship with consumers that can only be enhanced over the years. An international brand cannot necessarily reproduce such a unique relationship with consumers, even if there is substantial investment in marketing. The exploratory research also indicates that local brands can offer strategic advantages that international marketers should consider; they provide greater strategic flexibility in many marketing areas, such as product development, pricing, and positioning. On the basis of the results, Schuiling and Kapferer suggest that companies should develop brand portfolios with a balanced mix of strong local and international brands, thus helping minimize the risk usually associated with a portfolio of mostly international brands. Development of new local brands could also be a way to generate ideas that could be transformed into successful international brands at some point. The authors conclude by recommending that international marketers consider the substantial long-term advantage of owning brands with strong equity, even at the local level. In view of the difficulty of building strong brand franchises, especially when product differentiation is difficult to achieve, strong brands are essential differentiating assets.


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