A Cross-National Investigation of Incentive Sales Compensation

M. SEGALLA, D. ROUZIES, M. Besson, B. Weitz

International Journal of Research in Marketing

décembre 2006, vol. 23, n°4, pp.419-433

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS), Marketing

Why do managers choose one sales compensation form rather than another? Theoretical answers typically focus on the type of plans managers should design, not on the factors that managers actually consider. Managers from various national origins pursue and weigh objectives through experience in a way that theoretical models may not capture. Incorporating conceptualizations from a wide range of disciplines, we specify a model examining the influence of cultural factors on sales compensation decisions of managers (incentive vs. fixed pay and parity vs. equity allocation). The model, tested with data collected from bank managers across six European countries, illustrates the importance of considering national culture when designing sales force compensation policies applied across multiple countries. We also find evidence that most European bank managers accept incentive pay to motivate salespeople but, perhaps paradoxically, overwhelmingly reject equity allocations to achieve control and parity. We discuss the implications of our findings for research on international governance systems and the diffusion of sales force management practices Keywords: Distributive justice; Compensation; Performance pay; Sales force management; National culture

Anchor or fiction? The role of adding exchange to charity

B. BRIERS, L. Warlop, M. Pandeleare

Advances in Consumer Research

2006, vol. 33, pp.146

Départements : Marketing

Bringing cognitive load to daily life. Cognitive demand has negative after-effects on consumer decision making

S. Dewitte, B. BRIERS, M. Pandelaere, L. Warlop

Advances in Consumer Research

2006, vol. 33

Départements : Marketing

Consumers' Immediate Memory for Prices


Journal of Consumer Research

septembre 2006, vol. 33, n°2, pp.163-172

Départements : Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Cognitive Processes, Pricing, Language

We examine the cognitive mechanics involved in keeping prices in short-term memory for subsequent recall. Consumers code and store prices verbally, visually, and in terms of their magnitude. The encoding used influences immediate recall performance. The memorability of prices depends on their verbal length, usualness, and overall magnitude. We find that the performance of consumers is affected by their pronunciation speed and price abbreviation habits. Overall, consumers recall prices better that what previous digit span studies with simple numbers have suggested

Consumers, Characters and Products: A Balance Model of Sitcom Product Placement Effects

B. Stern, C. A. RUSSELL

Journal of Advertising

printemps 2006, vol. 35, n°1, pp.7-21

Départements : Marketing

This study examines the influence of product placements in television serial comedies on consumer attitudes toward the products. Proposing a "Balance Model of Sitcom Product Placement Effects," the study integrates genre theory to analyze character-product associations in sitcoms, parasocial theory to consider consumer-character referential relations, and balance theory to address the main research issue of the way that characters' relations to placed products and consumers' relations to the characters affect consumers' attitudes to the products. The model is based on balance theory, in which attitude alignment is the explanation for links between a triad composed of the consumer, the sitcom character, and the placed product. The influence of two consumer-character variables (attitude and parasocial attachment) and two character- product variables (valence and strength of association) are tested in a real-world situation. The methodology uses real televised sitcoms as stimuli, real viewers as respondents, and a real-time on-line survey to measure the relationship among the variables. Study findings support the predictions that consumers align their attitudes toward products with the characters' attitudes to products and that this process is driven by the consumers' attachment to the characters

Customer perceptions of service dimensions: cross-cultural analysis and perspective

W. ULAGA, M. Lee, C. Young, L. Cunningham

International Marketing Review

2006, vol. 23, n°2-3, pp.192-210

Départements : Marketing

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study that examined how customers in the USA, France, and Korea perceived and classified a set of 13 services based on multidimensional scaling (MDS). Design/methodology/approach - A MDS framework was used to map service classifications and actual services in the USA, Korea and France.Results from each country were then compared to the other two countries to determine similarities and differences.Findings - Results from this research suggest that there are two underlying dimensions that explain approximately 80 percent of the total variance in service perceptions and classifications. Underlying dimensions of the classifications across the three cultures were virtually identical. Differences among the countries were based on relative positioning of classifications and/or services on the underlying dimensions.Research limitations/implications - Evidence from diverse cultures implies that consumers perceive services in a somewhat simplistic, two-dimensional fashion rather than the complex set of classifications proposed by researchers. Although the complex classifications may be of use to service providers in organizing the delivery of services, the presentation and positioning of those services is along a much simpler framework in the minds of customers.Originality/value - This is the first time consumer-based perceptions of services have been examined systematically across cultures using a MDS approach.Author Keywords: services; classification; cross-cultural management; dimensional measurement KeyWords Plus: GLOBAL STRATEGIES; MARKETS

Deregulating Network Industries: Dealing with Price-Quality Tradeoffs


Journal of Regulatory Economics

2006, vol. 30, n°1, pp.99-115

Départements : Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

E-zines silence the brand detractors

S. DeWitte, J. van den Bergh, B. BRIERS

Journal of Advertising Research

juin 2006, vol. 46, n°2, pp.199-208

Départements : Marketing

In this article we investigated whether a company's recommendation factor can be increased by opt-in e-zines. A sample of 817 railway travelers was interviewed on the train. Using Reichheld's (2001) recommendation index, respondents were categorized as brand detractors, passively satisfied customers, or brand promoters. Respondents giving permission (n = 555) received either none or three e-zines in a period of six weeks. Post-measurement results (n = 221) showed that the proportion of detractors was significantly lower among respondents who received the newsletters compared to those who received no e-zines. Personalization to the receivers' lifestyle, however, had a negative effect on recommendation. We conclude with managerial implications and suggestions for future researchKeyWords Plus: WORD-OF-MOUTH; UNOBSERVABLE PRODUCT QUALITY; PERSPECTIVE; INFORMATION; PERSUASION; CONSUMERS; EQUITY

Hungry for Money: The Desire for Caloric Resources Increases The Desire for Financial Resources and Vice Versa

B. BRIERS, L. Warlop, S. Dewitte, M. Pandelaere

Advances in Consumer Research

2006, vol. 34, pp.571-572

Départements : Marketing

Hungry for money: The desire for caloric resources increases the desire for financial resources and vice versa

L. Warlop, S. Dewitte, M. Pandelaere, B. BRIERS

Psychological Science

novembre 2006, vol. 17, n°11, pp.939-943

Départements : Marketing

This report attempts to provide an evolutionary explanation for humans' motivation to strive for money in present-day societies. We propose that people's desire for money is a modern derivate of their desire for food. In three studies, we show the reciprocal association between the incentive value of food and of money. In Study 1, hungry participants were less likely than satiated participants to donate to charity. In Study 2, participants in a room with an olfactory food cue, known to increase the desire to eat, offered less money in a give-some game compared with participants in a room free of scent. In Study 3, participants' desire for money affected the amount of M&M's<sup>®</sup> they ate in a subsequent taste test, but only among participants who were not restricting their food intake in order to manage their weight