Articles

Aspiration performance and railroads' patterns of learning from train wrecks and crashes

J. Baum, K. B. DAHLIN

Organization Science

2007, vol. 18, n°3, pp.368-285

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise


Brand management pour les business schools - Une véritable arme stratégique

B. RAMANANTSOA

Revue Française de Gestion

novembre-décembre 2007, vol. 33, n°178-179, pp.125-131

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise


De plus en plus de business schools investissent massivement dans la communication et dans des politiques de marque. L’auteur de l’article, rattachant ce phénomène à la mondialisation du secteur, analyse les différents ressorts de ces politiques et montre, par ailleurs, qu’elles ont pour conséquence de créer des barrières à l’entrée, pour décourager les nouveaux entrants potentiels. Il insiste enfin sur l’imbrication entre la marque d’une école et l’image du pays dans lequel elle est implantée

Calibration Accuracy of a Judgmental Process that Predicts the Commercial Success of New Product Ideas

T. B. ASTEBRO, D. Koehler

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making

octobre 2007, vol. 20, n°4, pp.381-403

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : intuitive judgment; forecasting; calibration; bootstrapping; case-based judgment


We examine the accuracy of forecasts of the commercial potential of new product ideas by experts at an Inventor's Assistance Program (IAP). Each idea is evaluated in terms of 37 attributes or cues, which are subjectively rated and intuitively combined by an IAP expert to arrive at a forecast of the idea's commercialization prospects. Data regarding actual commercialization outcomes for 559 new product ideas were collected to examine the accuracy of the IAP forecasts. The intensive evaluation of each idea conducted by the IAP produces forecasts that accurately rank order the ideas in terms of their probability of commercialization. The focus of the evaluation process on case-specific evidence that distinguishes one idea from another, however, and the corresponding neglect of aggregate considerations such as the base rate (BR) and predictability of commercialization for new product ideas in general, yields forecasts that are systematically miscalibrated in terms of their correspondence to the actual probability of commercialization.

Challenges facing business schools in the future

E. CORNUEL

Journal of Management Development

2007, vol. 26, n°1, pp.87-92

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise


Keywords: Business schools; Curricula; Marketing strategy; Innovation.

Code and Conduct in French Cuisine: Impact of code changes on external evaluations

R. DURAND, H. Rao, P. Monin

Strategic Management Journal

mai 2007, vol. 28, n°5

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)


We study the effects of organizational code-preserving and code-violating changes on externalevaluations by third parties'an essential but under-studied strategic outcome. We define codepreservingchanges as a variation in the firm's product range that preserves the social codewithin which the firm positions its offering. By contrast, a code-violating change correspondsto a variation in the product range that breaks with past codes and embraces another socialcode. Our analyses of French haute cuisine restaurants show that code-preserving changes andcode-violating changes have positive effects on external evaluations. Both effects decline withprior evaluations received by the organization, but only the effect of code-violating changesis reduced with age. Moreover, external evaluations improve when restaurants undertake morecode-preserving changes than their direct competitors but decline when they make more codeviolatingchanges than competitors. These results enable us to derive implications for researchon strategic change, strategic groups, and strategic social positioning. Keywords code ' strategic changes ' external evaluations ' social positioning

Diminishing Returns from Reputation: Do Followers have a Competitive Advantage?

T. OBLOJ, K. Oblój

Corporate Reputation Review: an International Review

hiver 2007, vol. 9, n°4, pp.213-224

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Competitive advantage, Competitive dynamics, Reputation, Strategy


The paper addresses the value of reputation as a strategic, intangible resource. We hypothesize that a high reputation of an exchange partner will result in the ability to command a premium price during a transaction because it lowers the transaction costs of the other party. We also hypothesize that the smaller the differences in the level of reputation of competing parties, the more valuable a unit of reputation becomes. We test these hypotheses by empirical analysis of pairs of transactions on the Polish electronic exchange Allegro. Our analysis shows that if the differences in the levels of reputation decrease, the value of a unit of difference increases. We also extrapolate the results of our research into a more general model that shows the conditions in which a strategy based on high reputation (price premium per unit of reputation) is the most effective one and indicates the process of reputation development by stimulating the dynamics of leader and follower behavior.

Enjeux et opportunités de l'executive education

B. MOINGEON, L. LEHMANN-ORTEGA

Revue Française de Gestion

novembre-décembre 2007, n°178-179, pp.107-116

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)


La formation continue des managers et dirigeants, ou executive education, constitue aujourd'hui un des piliers de la stratégie des business schools. Peu présentes dans ce secteur jusque dans les années 1980, elles cherchent à y gagner des parts de marché par rapport aux sociétés privées, en s'appuyant notamment sur leur activité de recherche, qui constitue un avantage concurrentiel majeur. A condition qu'elles sachent favoriser des recherches à la fois rigoureuses sur le plan scientifique et pertinentes surle plan pragmatique, les business schools peuvent bénéficier d'un véritable effet vertueux de l'executive education, les profits économiques, culturels et symboliques associés se renforçant mutuellement.

Interest Alignment and Competitive Advantage

O. GOTTSCHALG, M. Zollo

Academy of Management Review

avril 2007, vol. 32, n°2, pp.418-437

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)


This paper articulates a theory of the conditions under which the alignment betweenindividual and collective interests generates sustainable competitive advantage. Thetheory is based on the influence of tacitness, context specificity, and causal ambiguityin the determinants of different types of motivation (extrinsic, normative intrinsic, andhedonic instinsic) under varying conditions of environmental dynamism. The analysisindicates the need to consider motivational processes as a complement to currentresource- and competence-based approaches in a comprehensive theory of competitiveadvantageCompetitive Advantage, Interest Alignment, Motivation, Buyouts

Interfirm collaboration networks and knowledge creation: The impact of large scale network structure on firm innovation

M. Schilling, C. C. PHELPS

Management Science

juillet 2007, vol. 53, n°7, pp.1113-1126

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise


The structure of alliance networks influences their potential for knowledge creation. Dense local clustering provides information transmission capacity in the network by fostering communication and cooperation. Nonredundant connections contract the distance between firms and give the network greater reach by tapping a wider range of knowledge resources. We propose that firms embedded in alliance networks that exhibit both high clustering and high reach (short average path lengths to a wide range of firms) will have greater innovative output than firms in networks that do not exhibit these characteristics. We find support for this proposition in a longitudinal study of the patent performance of 1,106 firms in 11 industry-level alliance networks.

Inventor Perseverance after Being Told to Quit: The Role of Cognitive Biases

T. B. ASTEBRO, S.A. Jeffrey, G. Adomdza

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making

juillet 2007, vol. 20, n°3, pp.253-272

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Inventor behavior, Sunk-cost bias, Optimism, Overconfidence, Decision biases

http://ssrn.com/abstract=925223


We find that approximately one third (29%) of independent inventors continue to spend money and 51% continue to spend time on projects after receiving highly diagnostic advice to cease effort. Using survey data from actual inventors, this paper studies the role of overconfidence, optimism, and the sunk-cost bias in these decisions. We find that inventors are more overconfident and optimistic than the general population. We also find that optimism and past expenditures increased perseverance after being told to quit, while overconfidence in judgment ability had no effect. After being told to quit, optimists spend 166% more than pessimists and those having already spent, for example, $ 10 000 spend another $ 10 000.


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