Basic Statistics on the Success Rate and Profits for Independent Inventors


Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice

Winter 1998, vol. 23, n°2, pp.41-48

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision, GREGHEC (CNRS)

1,095 responses were received from a telephone survey of Independent Inventors. The majority of inventors surveyed (89%) are male, and a plurality of their Inventions are designed for consumer products (47%). Conditional on commercializing their invention, and at development costs about 1/8 of those in established firms, Inventive efforts by independent inventors lead to gains virtually comparable to those of established firms. Their innovations survive for about as long as the average start-up. Gross profit margins are comparable to the pharmaceutical industry (29%). However, only a small fraction of inventions developed by independent inventors reach the market (6.5%). The probability of reaching the market is four to eight times less than for Inventions developed by established firms. Why do only a fraction of inventions developed by Independent inventors become commercialized when those that do commercialize are quite profitable and survive for as long as other start-ups?

Bioscoopbeelden Kunnen Gerust Bezichtigd Worden; Rotterdamse Bioscopen in het Seizoen 1908/1909


Tijdschrift voor Mediageschiedenis

1998, vol. 1, n°1, pp.32-46

Départements : Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Comments on benchmarking


Betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung und Praxis

juillet-août 1998

Départements : Comptabilité et Contrôle de Gestion

Condorcet Cycles in Bipartite Populations

H. CRES, Y. Balasko

Economic Theory

août 1998, vol. 12, pp.313-334

Départements : Finance

Simple majority voting between pairs of alternatives is used to aggregate individual preferences. The occurence of Condorcet cycles is limited thanks to a principle of homogeneity on individual preferences. The restrictions induced on the domain of the latters are weak: among the n! possible orderings of n alternatives, more than one half are admissible within a domain. The resulting aggregated preference has then a neglectable probability of showing up cycles. We show moreover that the set of individual preferences can be 'naturally' partitioned into two such domains.

Constrained Suboptimality in Incomplete Markets: A General Approach and Two Applications

A. CITANNA, A. Villanacci, A. Kajii

Economic Theory

1998, vol. 11, pp.495-521

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision

In this paper we re-examine generic constrained suboptimality of equilibrium allocations with incomplete numeraire asset markets. We provide a general framework which is capable of resolving some issues left open by the previous literature, and encompasses many kinds of intervention in partially controlled marl;et economies. In particular, we establish generic constrained suboptimality, as studied by Geanakoplos and Polemarchakis, even without an upper bound on the number of households. Moreover, we consider the case where asset markets are left open, and the planner can make lump-sum transfers in a limited number of goods. We show that such a perfectly anticipated wealth redistribution policy, though consistent with the assumed incomplete financial structure, is typically effective

Culture, Culture and "Culture" in Foreign Language Teaching


Foreign Language Annals

octobre 1998, vol. 31, n°3, pp.451-458

Départements : Langues et Cultures

“Culture,” which is taking on increasing importance in contemporary foreign language pedagogy, has also been the subject of much debate. Definitions of what culture is have proliferated, from Matthew Arnold to Levi-Strauss to Edward Hall, and not infrequently lines of opposition have formed around them. But if we abandon an oppositional mode of thinking and address the question of culture and language learning from the perspective of the affective elements contained within both, we may be able to adopt a more ecumenical approach to the former and provide ourselves with a much more powerful tool for helping students acquire the latter

De la réparation des atteintes au droit à et sur l'image et au droit à la vie privée


La Semaine Juridique

29 avril 1998, vol. II, n°18, pp.10067

Départements : Droit et fiscalité,D,H,$PSEUDOXAB,A,H,TYPE-ARTICLE,A,H&startDocNo=11&resultsUrlKey=29_T24094386076&cisb=22_T24094386075&treeMax=true&treeW

Documentation comptable sur Internet


Revue Fiduciaire Comptable

novembre 1998, n°245, pp.20-26

Départements : Comptabilité et Contrôle de Gestion, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Doing Research With Foreign Colleagues: A Project-Life Approach

F. Bournois, F. CHEVALIER

Journal of Managerial Psychology

1998, vol. 123, n°3/4, pp.206-213

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Duality and markovian strategies


International Journal of Game Theory

décembre 1998, vol. 27, n°4, pp.577-597

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision, GREGHEC (CNRS)

We introduce the dual of a stochastic game with incomplete information on one side, and we deduce some properties of optimal strategies of the uninformed player.