Articles

American psychological isolationism

E. L. UHLMANN

Review of General Psychology

2012, vol. 16, n°4, pp.381-390

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : American culture, Protestantism, Implicit puritanism, Moral values, Isolationism


The United States possesses a distinctive cultural mindset characterized by a lack of regard for and even lack of awareness of the perspectives of other countries, coupled with a passionate desire to spread American values throughout the world. We term this mindset American psychological isolationism. Like American moral values more generally, this psychological outlook has its roots in America's unique religious and cultural history. The American Puritans' religious zeal contributes to America's ideological self-certainty and lack of regard for the values of others. At the same time, America's sense of divine mission in spreading its values, whether other countries like it or not, is traceable to the Puritans' view of themselves as a “shining city on a hill” destined to save all the world

An Empirical Investigation of Interorganizational Opportunism and Contracting Mechanisms

F. Lumineau, B. QUÉLIN

Strategic Organization

février 2012, vol. 10, n°1, pp.55-84

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Formal contract, Legal fees, Opportunism, Relational contract, Vertical relationship

http://ssrn.com/abstract=1977832


This study investigates contracting mechanisms in situations of opportunistic disputes between organizations. The authors specifically explore the relationships between the formal versus informal nature of opportunism and the formal versus informal nature of contractual governance. They use a unique data set of 102 buyer–supplier disputes to explore in depth different types of opportunism – that is, strong form versus weak form opportunism – and different types of contracting mechanisms – that is, the controlling and coordinating functions of formal contracts and the cooperative and competitive sides of relational contracts. The authors’ detailed empirical analysis suggests distinct relationships between the different contracting mechanisms, the different types of opportunism, and the level of legal fees necessary to deal with the dispute. From these findings the authors derive implications for research on the role of contractual mechanisms in dealing with interorganizational opportunism

An Inductive Typology of Auditing Research

C. LESAGE, H. Wechtler

Contemporary Accounting Research

été 2012, vol. 29, n°2, pp.487-504

Départements : Comptabilité et Contrôle de Gestion, GREGHEC (CNRS)


accepté le 9 mai 2011This paper aims to build a typology of auditing research topics. As research in auditing has grown dramatically over the past few decades, it has explored increasingly diverse research questions, raising the need for a clear overall picture of the field. Typologies have already been developed and used by researchers to analyze trends or compare research output in various contexts. However, the existing classifications are limited in scope and use a predefined structure generally grounded in a practitioner's approach, which may for instance underestimate economics-centered research. We develop an inductive typology based on content analysis of 3,143 abstracts from 25 academic journals, from their year of creation up to the year 2005. This inductive typology extends and updates previously published classifications, providing researchers with a clear picture of how the academic literature in auditing has grown and evolved in its topical coverage. In particular, this new typology enables us 1) to highlight three key periods (education, statistics, corporate governance) since 1926; 2) to identify 16 major themes in auditing research; 3) to stress their relative importance and patterns of change; and 4) to analyze the contribution of the leading journals.

Assesing the role of context in traffic light violations

E. KEMEL, L. CARNIS

Economics Bulletin

décembre 2012, vol. 32, n°4, pp.3386-3396

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision, GREGHEC (CNRS)

http://www.accessecon.com/Pubs/EB/2012/Volume32/EB-12-V32-I4-P326.pdf


Blood is thicker: Moral spillover effects based on kinship

E. L. UHLMANN, L. Zhu, D. Pizarro, P. Bloom

Cognition

août 2012, vol. 124, n°2, pp.239-243

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Moral cognition, Spillover effects, Kinship, Blood ties, Psychological essentialism


Three empirical studies document the intuitive spillover of moral taint from a person who engages in immoral acts to another individual who is related by ties of blood kinship. In Study 1, participants were more likely to recommend that the biological grandchild of a wrongdoer, compared to a non-biological grandchild, help the descendants of his grandfather’s victims. In Study 2, participants were more willing to hold two long-lost identical twins in custody for a crime committed by one twin than to hold two perfect look-alikes for a crime committed by one look-alike. Study 3 provides direct evidence that spillover effects based on blood kinship are manifested in an intuitive sense of moral taint

Bound and Collapse Bayesian Reject Inference for Credit Scoring

G. Chen, T. B. ASTEBRO

Journal of the Operational Research Society

octobre 2012, vol. 63, n°10, pp.1374-1387

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Statistics, Credit scoring, Bayesian, Reject inference, Missing data

http://ssrn.com/abstract=579001


Reject inference is a method for inferring how a rejected credit applicant would have behaved had credit been granted. Credit-quality data on rejected applicants are usually missing not at random (MNAR). In order to infer credit-quality data MNAR, we propose a flexible method to generate the probability of missingness within a model-based bound and collapse Bayesian technique. We tested the method's performance relative to traditional reject-inference methods using real data. Results show that our method improves the classification power of credit scoring models under MNAR conditions.

Build leadership’s tolerance for ambiguity

R. WHITE, S. L. SHULLMAN

Chief Learning Officer

octobre 2012, vol. 11, n°10


Cash Savings and Stock Price Informativeness

L. FRESARD

Review of Finance

2012


This paper examines the process whereby firms accumulate their cash reserves, i.e. their savings decisions. The investigation illustrates that stock prices, and more importantly, the private information they contain, play a crucial role in explaining firms' savings choices. I start by documenting that a firm' savings are highly sensitive to its stock price. This positive association indicates that firms tend to transfer more resources into their cash balances when the market foresees valuable future prospects. Strikingly, such a precautionary mechanism turns out to be amplified when the market price contains a larger content of private investors' information. Hence, the findings are consistent with the view that managers learn from observing the level of their stock price. Moreover, further test show that this defensive learning is not due to the uncaptured effect of market mispricing or financing constraints. Overall, the analysis importantly highlights that the nature and precision of the available information about firms' future prospects are crucial ingredients of their saving choices. Keywords: Corporate savings, cash holdings, price informativeness, private information

Clearing, Counterparty Risk, and Aggregate Risk

B. BIAIS, F. HEIDER, M. HOEROVA

International Monetary Fund (IMF) Economic Review

juillet 2012, vol. 60, n°2, pp.193-222

Départements : Finance

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/imfer.2012.8/fulltext.html


The paper studies the optimal design of clearing systems. The paper analyzes how counterparty risk should be allocated, whether traders should be fully insured against that risk, and how moral hazard affects the optimal allocation of risk. The main advantage of centralized clearing, as opposed to no or decentralized clearing, is the mutualization of risk. While mutualization fully insures idiosyncratic risk, it cannot provide insurance against aggregate risk. When the latter is significant, it is efficient that protection buyers exert effort to find robust counterparties, whose low default risk makes it possible for the clearing system to withstand aggregate shocks. When this effort is unobservable, incentive compatibility requires that protection buyers retain some exposure to counterparty risk even with centralized clearing

Cognitive Absorption and Trust for Workplace Collaboration in Virtual Worlds: An Information Processing Decision Making Perspective

S. C. SRIVASTAVA, S. Chandra, Y-L. Theng

Journal of the Association for Information Systems (JAIS)

octobre 2012, vol. 13, n°10, pp.797-835

Départements : Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Virtual worlds (VWs) are media-rich cognitively engaging technologies that geographically dispersed organizations can use as a cost effective workplace collaboration tool. Using an information processing decision making perspective and building on unique characteristics of VWs, this paper proposes a nomological net for adaptive use intention (AUI) of VWs for workplace collaborations. AUI implies intention to use a technology in a setting different from the one for which it was initially designed. We study the AUI of VWs as a workplace collaboration tool which were originally conceived as recreational gaming platforms. Decision-making literature directs us to reduction of perceived cognitive burden and minimization of risk as the two key motivations for VWs' AUI. Building on these motivations, the paper identifies cognitive absorption and user trust in VWs as the mechanisms leading to individual-level AUI decision. Drawing on social cognitive theory and literature on trust, the proposed model not only re-specifies the concept of cognitive absorption in the context of VWs but also relates it to the level of trust and usage intention for VWs. We empirically tested the proposed model via data collected from 197 VW users in Singapore. Results demonstrate the significant roles that cognitive absorption' and user trust play in VW's usage as a collaboration tool. Further, through a series of post-hoc analyses, we demonstrate the imperative need for considering both cognitive absorption and user trust together in the proposed research model for theoretical parsimony. We also discuss implications for research and practice emerging out of this study.


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