Articles

Are Criminal Sanctions Always Appropriate in Business Law? The French Example of Combining Civil and Criminal Law

N. STOLOWY

Journal of Business Law

2016, vol. 7, pp.607-623

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Commercial law; Corporate liability; Criminal liability; France; Offences; Penalties; White collar crime


Developments in business law have shown a general trend towards autonomy or indeed particularism.French commercial law is not homogeneous in substance, although several laws have been combined and the codification has been unified.1France’s Commercial Code comprises a number of different branches that each claims their own particularism.This codification is an administrative resource. It provides a formal presentation of a discipline, without interfering with its content. In some instances the codification improves the accessibility of information, but the major divisions of commercial law remain, and this does not contribute to overall coherence.The criminal sanctions applicable in business law fall into the scope of a specific criminal law. The groupings have been so artificial that is it sometimes very difficult for these disciplines to display their particularism. For example, different criminal laws have developed in such diverse areas as criminal labour law, criminal consumer law, criminal planning and environment law, criminal tax law which completes criminal company law, and criminal business law which is a counterpart to (and sometimes difficult to distinguish from) criminal economic law.These different branches show up boundaries that are often vague, and relative specificities.3 They are best justified on the level of criminal sociology, since they concern clearly identified actors in the various activities involving exposure to certain risks. General or special classifications have had to be found for those risks.These disciplines have the merit of imposing a constructed coherence on the study of criminal offence classifications relating to the major sectors of economic and corporate activity, in order to secure and moralise those activities.Criminal business law occupies a prominent position owing to the company law logic, to which it claims to be a response, but also owing to the difficulty of clearly determining its legal purpose. Its scope varies depending on the author, and the sociological than a legal reality. It is easier to understand that the aim of criminal sanctions is to bring morality into the world of business when they have a repressive dimension or are imposed by the court to ensure compliance. In this perspective they act as a sword of Damocles, and are more effective than court orders or injunctions, which remain civil law sanctions that have few consequences for the individual, and more importantly can be covered by insurance.Criminal law as applied to business is simply a reflection of the complexity of social relations and the difficulty, not to say impossibility, of finding a dividing line between the human, social and economic activities. The economic activity criterion is doubtless the most relevant. Criminal business law acts as a combined law.After an analysis of the appropriateness or otherwise of the decriminalisation of business law, we study its most typical criminal sanctions.

At Long Last, Italy Moves to Comply With European Human Rights Imperative to Recognize Same-Sex Partners

M. M. WINKLER

Lesbian/Gay Law Notes

juin 2016, vol. 6/2016, pp.226-228

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)


Balancing free movement and public health the case of Minimum Unit Pricing of alcohol in Scotch Whisky

A. ALEMANNO

Common Market Law Review

aout 2016, vol. 53, n°4, pp.1037–1063

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : EU law, Proportionality, Tax, Minimum unit pricing, Alcohol, Lifestyle, NCD, Precautionary principle, Risk regulation, Judicial review

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2803165


Scotland is the first jurisdiction in the world to introduce a minimum price per unit of alcohol to reduce consumption. The relevant industry did not hesitate to challenge this new alcohol control policy before courts. The ensuing judgment contains a wealth of insights stemming from regulatory autonomy to proportionality review

Commercio Elettronico, Clausole Abusive e Lois De Police: Il Caso Expedia (Tribunal De Commerce De Paris, 7 Mai 2015)

M. M. WINKLER

Diritto del Commercio Internazionale

2016, vol. Anno XXX, n°Fasc. 2, pp.559-586

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)


L’analyse comportementale du droit

A-L; SIBONY, G HELLERINGER, A. ALEMANNO

Revue Internationale de Droit Economique (RIDE)

2016, vol. 3, n°XXX, pp.315-338

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Analyse comportementale du droit, approche empirique, droit et psychologie, théorie du droit, nudge

https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-droit-economique-2016-3-page-315.htm


Pour être efficace, le droit a besoin d’une représentation aussi exacte que possible des comportements humains. Les sciences cognitives et comportementales offrent à cet égard des enseignements précieux, que le droit gagnerait à intégrer davantage. Dans cet article, nous rendons compte d’un mouvement de recherche qui s’est développé depuis une vingtaine d’années et s’intéresse aux manières d’intégrer les apports des sciences comportementales à l’étude du droit et à l’élaboration des politiques publiques. Nous explicitons dans un premier temps les prémisses dece champ d’études, avant de discuter l’appellation qui convient le mieux pour le nommer. Nous en dessinons ensuite les contours en décrivant ses objets et questionsde recherche. Enfin, nous évoquons ses méthodes. Par cette introduction à l’analyse comportementale du droit, nous adressons aux juristes une invitation à embrasserce champ de recherches interdisciplinaires encore nouveau en Europe

Mandatory consumer arbitration in a transatlantic perspective: the US supreme court paves the (wrong) way

M. M. WINKLER

Revue de Droit des Affaires Internationales (RDAI) / International Business Law Journal (IBLJ)

2016, vol. 5, pp.519-536

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Arbitration; Comparative law; Consumer law; EU law; United States

https://www.iblj.com/abstract.htm?ref=52016519-536


Dans la dernière décennie, la Cour Suprême des Etats-Unis s’est trouvé au coeur d’une tempête de critiques, déclenchée par ses décisions en matière d’arbitrage obligatoire de consommateur. La dernière de ces décisions en particulier, rendue le 14 décembre 2015 dans l’affaire Direct TV c. Imburgia, a proviqué un débat brûlant concerant certains aspects fondamentaux de l’arbitrage, teel que les limites de l’autonomie des parties, le rôle de l’interprétation contractuelle et la question de la nature de l’arbitrage elle-même. En raison de ces vastes implications, et en dépit de sa dimension presque exclusivement américaine, la décision Direct TV peut être sujette à une analyse transnationale visant à saisir ses profondes répercussions sur la compréhension de l’arbitrage et du contentieux de consommation en Europe par comparaison aux Etats-Unis

Nudges: Better choices ?

M BOZZO-REY, A BRUNON-ERNST, A. VAN WAEYENBERGE

The Tocqueville Review / La revue Tocqueville

2016, vol. 37, n°1, pp.7-20

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)

https://muse.jhu.edu/article/626849/pdf


The role of codes of conduct in the assessment of unfair commercial practices

A. VAN WAEYENBERGE, A. BOCHON

Journal of Business Law

2016, vol. 6, pp.451-464

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Codes of conduct; EU law; Unfair commercial practices


This article provides an in-depth analysis of the role of codes of conduct in the assessment of unfair commercial practices established by Directive 2005/29 of 11 May 2005 concerning unfair business-to-consumer practices in the internal market and its current reception in Member States case law

What the TTIP leaks mean for the on-going negotiations and future agreement?: Time to overcome TTIP's many informational asymmetries

A. ALEMANNO

European Journal of Risk Regulation

2016, vol. 7, n°2, pp.237 - 241

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : TTIP, international trade, FTA, EU, US, regulatory convergence, regulatory coherence, mutual recognition, equivalence, regulatory compatibility, risk regulation


One of the major merits of the TTIP leaks has been to highlight the underlying information asymmetry characterising the on-going TTIP negotiations. By systematically releasing its position papers before each negotiation, the EU actual disclosure policy contributes to a permanent yet overlooked information imbalance between the EU and its trading partner(s). The ensuing asymmetry does not only alter the overall negotiating environment, but also how the media, academics, and, in turn, the public actually perceive it. Moreover, it generates many other information asymmetries within the EU itself: that between the negotiators and the elected representatives, that between corporate and civil society interest groups, and eventually between the ‘TTIP circus’ and the general public. If the negotiators themselves have hijacked the rhetoric of fact-checking, academics have not yet had their chance to contribute to the discussion. As a result, only the EU positions have been studied, criticized and closely debated, with the US negotiating positions remaining largely a mystery. After briefly presenting the how’s of the TTIP leaks, this opening piece examines the what’s and why’s behind this unprecedented revelation of negotiating texts. It is against this backdrop that the other contributors to this symposium explore which are the most immediate consequences of the TTIP leaks on the on-going negotiations and future agreement.

While Legislature Is Paralyzed over Stepparent Adoption, Italian Courts Uphold Same-Sex Adoptions Performed Abroad

M. M. WINKLER

Lesbian/Gay Law Notes

janvier 2016, pp.14-15

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)

http://le-gal.org/while-legislature-is-paralyzed-over-stepparent-adoption-italian-courts-uphold-same-sex-adoptions-performed-abroad/


On December 23, 2015, the Court of Appeals of Rome affirmed the ruling rendered on July 30, 2014, by the Juvenile Tribunal (Tribunale per i Minorenni) of Rome that recognized a female partner of the biological mother of a child as entitled to stepparent adoption of the same child (the first instance ruling is described in 2014 Lesbian & Gay Law Notes 425 (2012)). The judgment confirms the great strides made by Italian courts in the recognition and protection of same-sex families in a context where legislation is still missing (see Eur. Ct. Hum Rgts, Case of Oliari v. Italy, Apps. Nos. 18766/11 and 36030/11, July 21, 2015). In the matter of X (Foreign Same-Sex Stepparent Adoption).After Greece enacted a law on same-sex civil unions on Dec. 23, 2015, Italy remains the only one among Western Europe countries lacking any regulation of same-sex couples (as well as of other major sexual orientation-related subjects like criminal provisions regarding hate speech and hate crimes). A bill providing for civil unions allegedly inspired by the German model (No. S-2081) is dormant in the Senate since March 2013 and will be presumably discussed, if the schedule is respected, at the end of January 2016. The bill originated from the left-wing ranks of the Democratic Party (Partito Democratico, PD), but encountered strong opposition from both the center-right parties and the Catholic faction of PD. Throughout the discussions that preceded the bill’s official presentation in the Senate in October 2015, opponents filed more than 4,200 amendments, most of them obstructionist in nature and therefore completely useless, with no other purpose than that of delaying and ultimately sacking the bill. Strong opposition comes from the Catholic Church as well, which on multiple occasions has threatened “barricades” and popular uprising against the bill if passed


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