Articles

Keeping positive and building strength: The role of affect and team leadership in developing resilience during an organizational crisis

A. SOMMER, J. M. HOWELL, C. N. HADLEY

Group and Organization Management

avril 2016, vol. 41, n°2, pp.172-202

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Organizational crisis, Leadership, Emotions, Resilience, Teams, Health care


During an organizational crisis in health care, we collected multilevel data from 426 team members and 52 leaders. The results of hierarchical linear modeling describe the influence of leader behavior on team members’ resilience, which is primarily through affective mechanisms. Specifically, transformational leadership was associated with greater levels of positive affect and lower levels of negative affect, which in turn predicted higher resilience among team members. Inverse effects were found for the passive form of management-by-exception (MBE) leadership. Contrary to expectation, no relationship was found between active MBE leadership and affect. The implications for leaders and team members to foster positive affect and resilience during a crisis are discussed

The Politics of Achievement Gaps: U.S. Public Opinion on Race-Based and Wealth-Based Differences in Test Scores

J. VALANT, D. NEWARK

Educational Researcher

2016, vol. 45, n°6, pp.331-346

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : achievement gap; educational policy; equity; experimental research; politics; poverty; race; survey research

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3102/0013189X16658447


For decades, researchers have documented large differences in average test scores between minority and White students and between poor and wealthy students. These gaps are a focal point of reformers’ and policymakers’ efforts to address educational inequities. However, the U.S. public’s views on achievement gaps have received little attention from researchers, despite playing an important role in shaping policymakers’ behaviors. Drawing on randomized experiments with a nationally representative sample of adults, we explore the public’s beliefs about test score gaps and its support for gap-closing initiatives. We find that Americans are more concerned about—and more supportive of proposals to close—wealth-based achievement gaps than Black-White or Hispanic-White gaps. Americans also explain the causes of wealthbased gaps more readily

What determines crime rates? An empirical test of integrated economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior

P. ENGELEN, M. LANDER, M. VAN ESSEN

The Social Science Journal

juin 2016, vol. 53, n°2, pp.247-262

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Crime, Property crime, Violent crime, Deterrence, Integrated model


Research on crime has by no means reached a definitive conclusion on which factors are related to crime rates. We contribute to the crime literature by providing an integrated empirical model of economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior and by using a very comprehensive set of economic, social as well as demographic explanatory variables. We use panel data techniques to estimate this integrated crime model for property and violent crime using the entire population of all 100 counties in North Carolina for the years 2001–2005. Both fields contribute to the explanatory power of the integrated model. Our results support the economic explanation of crime with respect to the deterrent effect of the probabilities of arrest and imprisonment concerns, as well as the time allocation model of criminal activities. In contrast, the integrated model seems to reject the impact of the severity of punishment on crime levels. With respect to the sociological theories of crime, we find most support for the social disorganization theory and for the routine activity theory. Finally, we find differences between property and violent crimes, mostly explained by the sociological models.

A desire for deviance: The influence of leader normativeness and inter-group competition on group member support

J. W. CHANG, N. TURAN, R. M. CHOW

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

janvier 2015, vol. 56, pp.36-49

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Deviance; Leadership; Inter-group competition; Social identity

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002210311400122X


Does Emotional Intelligence Matter in Interpersonal Processes? The Mediating Role of Emotion Management

J. CHOI, G. CHUNG, S. SUNG, B. NAZIR, S. MOATAZ, J. W. CHANG

Seoul Journal of Business

décembre 2015, vol. 21, n°2, pp.45-70

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Emotional intelligence, Emotion management, Interpersonal behavior, Negotiation


Researchers have identified emotional intelligence (EI) as an importantindividual characteristic that predicts interpersonal effectiveness. In thisstudy, we identified three potential areas of emotion management (emotionexpression, emotion recognition, and shaping counterpart emotion) thatmay be promoted by intrapersonal and interpersonal EI, and may mediatethe effects of EI on interpersonal process and outcomes. Our analysisof data from a dyadic negotiation simulation indicates that EI predictsone aspect of emotion management (shaping counterpart emotion).Intrapersonal EI (but not interpersonal EI) increased counterpart positiveemotion and decreased counterpart negative emotion during the negotiationsimulation. Nevertheless, the overall relationship between EI and emotionmanagement was weak. The present study highlighted the need for clearlyconceptualizing and investigating emotional management through whichindividuals accrue interpersonal and performance benefits

I used to work at Goldman Sachs! How firms benefit from organizational status in the market for human capital

M. BIDWELL, S. WON, R. BARBULESCU, E. MOLLICK

Strategic Management Journal

août 2015, vol. 36, n°8, pp.1164-1173

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Organizational status, Rent appropriation, Careers, Human capital, Investment banking industry

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2440404


How does employer status benefit firms in the market for general human capital? On the one hand, high status employers are better able to attract workers, who value the signal of ability that employment at those firms provides. On the other hand, that same signal can help workers bid up wages and capture the value of employers' status. Exploring this tension, we argue that high status firms are able to hire higher ability workers than other firms, and do not need to pay them the full value of their ability early in the career, but must raise wages more rapidly than other firms as those workers accrue experience. We test our arguments using unique survey data on careers in investment banking

I used to work at Goldman Sachs! How firms benefit from organizational status in the market for human capital

M. BIDWELL, S. WON, R. BARBULESCU, E. MOLLICK

Strategic Management Journal

aout 2015, vol. 36, n°8, pp.1164-1173

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Organizational status, Rent appropriation, Careers, Human capital, Investment banking industry

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2440404


How does employer status benefit firms in the market for general human capital? On the one hand, high status employers are better able to attract workers, who value the signal of ability that employment at those firms provides. On the other hand, that same signal can help workers bid up wages and capture the value of employers’ status. Exploring this tension, we argue that high status firms are able to hire higher ability workers than other firms, and do not need to pay them the full value of their ability early in the career, but must raise wages more rapidly than other firms as those workers accrue experience. We test our arguments using unique survey data on careers in investment banking

Team adaptation: A fifteen-year synthesis (1998–2013) and framework for how this literature needs to “adapt” going forward

M. T. MAYNARD, D. M. KENNEDY, A. SOMMER

European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology

2015, vol. 24, n°5, pp.652-677

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Teams, Adaptation, Process, Multi-level, Literature review


Organizations increasingly operate within dynamic environments that require them to adapt. To respond quickly and effectively to acute or on-going change, many organizations use teams to help them remain competitive. Accordingly, the topic of team adaptation has become more prominent within the broader organizational team literature. Given the wealth of knowledge that has been accumulated, we consider what has been learned to date. However, even with the increased attention to team adaptation within the literature, not all teams are created equal in terms of their capacity for adaptability. Thus, we review factors that serve as antecedents of team adaptation, the process of adaptation, and the resulting adaptive outcomes. Finally, we suggest future directions for research and practice as we introduce a conceptual framework, whereby the focus of a team’s adaptation process is impacted by the type and severity of the disruption or trigger that gives rise to the need for adaptation

The Strength of Many Kinds of Ties: Unpacking the Role of Social Contacts Across Stages of the Job Search Process

R. BARBULESCU

Organization Science

juillet-août 2015, vol. 26, n°4, pp.1040-1058

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Job search, Stage process, Matching, External labor market, Careers, Mobility, Managerial jobs, MBA, Occupations, Social contacts, Social networks, Tie strength, Network range


The topic of job mobility has received increasing attention in recent years. Yet, surprising in light of the wealth of research on social networks and job attainment, we do not have a unified model of the impact of different kinds ofsocial contacts on job search success. In this paper I show that contacts are differently beneficial for job seekers depending on the stage of the job search process that job seekers are engaged in. Specifically, three stages of the job search process can be distinguished in which social contacts fulfill different roles for the job seekers: deciding the types of jobs for which to apply, submitting job applications, and preparing for interviews. I propose that contacts who are spread across different occupations are conducive to applying to more types of jobs, yet it is contacts who are more focused across occupations that are beneficial for being invited to more interviews—relative to the number of job types applied for—and for converting the interviews into offers. In addition, contacts with lower relationship depth with the job seeker are more helpful for getting invited to interviews, whereas contacts who have more frequent interactions with the job seeker are more helpful for converting interviews into offers. Analyses using a unique longitudinal data set on the job searches of 226 participants in an MBA program offer robust evidence in support of the hypotheses. The results suggest that external mobility is best enabled when job seekers engage with—and learn from—different kinds of contacts across stages of the job search process

Acts, Persons, and Intuitions: Person-Centered Cues and Gut Reactions to Harmless Transgressions

E. L. UHLMANN, L. ZHU

Social Psychological and Personality Science

avril 2014, vol. 5, n°3, pp.279-285

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Person-centered moral judgments, Moral intuitions, Social intuitionist model, Moral dumbfounding, Informational value, Act-person dissociations


Negative gut reactions to harmless-but-offensive transgressions can be driven by inferences about the moral character of the agent more so than condemnation of the act itself. Dissociations between moral judgments of acts and persons emerged, such that participants viewed a harmless-but-offensive transgression to be a less immoral act than a harmful act, yet more indicative of poor moral character. Participants were more likely to become "morally dumbfounded'' when asked to justify their judgments of a harmless-but-offensive act relative to a harmful act. However, they were significantly less likely to become morally dumbfounded when asked to justify character judgments of persons who engaged in the harmless-but-offensive transgression, an effect based in part on the information-rich nature of such behaviors. Distinguishing between evaluations of acts and persons helps account for both moral outrage over harmless transgressions and when individuals are (and are not) at a loss to explain their own judgments


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