Upsteam competition with vertically integrated firms

M. Bourreau, J. HOMBERT, J. Pouyet, N. Schutz

Journal of Industrial Economics

décembre 2011, vol. 59, n°4, pp.677-713

Départements : Finance, GREGHEC (CNRS)

We propose a model of two-tier competition between vertically integrated firms and unintegrated downstream firms. We show that, even when integrated firms compete in prices to offer a homogeneous input, the Bertrand logic may collapse, and the input may be priced above marginal cost in equilibrium. These partial foreclosure equilibria are more likely to exist when downstream competition is fierce or when unintegrated downstream competitors are relatively inefficient. We discuss the impact of several regulatory tools on the competitiveness of the wholesale market

Using Biomass to Achieve European Union Energy Targets—A Review of Biomass Status, Potential, and Supporting Policies


International Journal of Green Energy

2011, vol. 8, n°4, pp.411-428

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise

Mots clés : Bioenergy, Bioenergy policies, Biomass, Biomass policies, Data validation, Energy policies, Renewables, Scientific reference system, SRS

In an effort to monitor its ambitious energy targets toward a “green Europe,” the European Commission has set up a project to enhance the availability, completeness, and quality of data regarding Green Energy Technologies. The Scientific Reference System (SRS) established in the framework of this project intends to support better-informed decisions. In this paper, we discuss the information gathered regarding energy from biomass by using the SRS methodology. First, the SRS approach is summarized and following that we present the findings of the research conducted by analyzing the data regarding biomass, with focus on energy policy frameworks

Value creation and value capture with frictions


Strategic Management Journal

novembre 2011, vol. 32, n°11, pp.1206-1231

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Value-based strategy, Biform games, Industry analysis, Rivalry, Sustainable competitive advantage

We use a formal value-based model to study how frictions—incomplete linkages in the industry value chain that keep some parties from meeting and transacting—affect value creation and value capture. Frictions arise from search and switching costs and moderate the intensity of industry rivalry and the efficiency of the market. We find that firms with a competitive advantage prefer industries with less, but not zero, frictions. We show that rivalry interacts nontrivially with other competitive forces to affect industry attractiveness. Firm heterogeneity emerges naturally when we introduce resource development. Heterogeneity falls with frictions, but the sustainability of competitive advantage increases. Overall, we show that introducing frictions makes value-based models very effective at integrating analyses at the industry, firm, and resource levels.

Value Creation in Alliance Portfolios: The Benefits and Costs of Network Resource Interdependencies

U. Wassmer, P. DUSSAUGE

European Management Review

2011, vol. 8, pp.47-64

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Strategic alliances, Alliance portfolios, Value creation, Resource-based view of the firm

We draw on the resource-based view of the firm and the alliance benefits and costs literature to advance a model of value creation in firms that access network resources through multiple simultaneous strategic alliances with different partners. Our model suggests that value creation on the alliance portfolio level is a function of the benefits created through synergistic combinations of network resources accessed through alliances with different partners and of the costs generated by the substitutability of resource combinations between the focal firm and its alliance partners. We specify the conditions under which firms can leverage their network resources accessed from alliances with different partners to create benefits above and beyond the benefits they create at the level of any individual alliance. We conclude that the value creating potential of network resources should not only be evaluated on the basis of each individual alliance but also from an alliance portfolio perspective

Value creation, competition, and performance in buyer-supplier relationships


Strategic Management Journal

janvier 2011, vol. 32, n°1, pp.76-102

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Value-based strategies, Added value, Client-specific scope economies, Buyer-supplier relationships, Professional service firms

The value-based approach to strategy argues that a firm's ability to capture value depends on the extent of its added value. In this paper, I empirically test the link between added value and value capture using a longitudinal dataset of United Kingdom law firm performance, capabilities, and client relationships. In this setting, competitors relevant for defining a firm's added value are those that share a client with the firm. Further, within a client relationship, value creation, and hence added value, can be decomposed in two parts: product-line capability and client-specific scope economies. I find that added value, measured at the level of each buyer-supplier relationship, is a driver of relationship stability and supplier profitability. This suggests that suppliers with similar capabilities might enjoy different economic returns depending on the composition of their set of relevant competitors. These findings shed light on the conditions under which firms can appropriate returns from their capabilities. They indicate that concepts from cooperative games can be fruitfully applied to empirical studies of firm performance and to the elaboration of insights from the resource-based view of the firm

Why the Empty Shells Were Not Fired: A Semi-Bibliographical Note



octobre 2011, vol. 8, n°3, pp.301-308

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision, GREGHEC (CNRS)

This note documents Aumann's reason for omitting the 'empty shells' argument for the common prior assumption from the final version of 'Correlated Equilibrium as an Expression of Bayesian Rationality.' It then continues to discuss the argument and concludes that rational entities cannot learn their own identity; if they do not know it a priori, they never will.

Wishful thinking: Belief, desire, and the motivated evaluation of scientific evidence

E. L. UHLMANN, A. Bastardi, L. Ross

Psychological Science

juin 2011, vol. 22, n°6, pp.731-732

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

The article discusses a study which examined whether desire would trump beliefs based on facts when participants were asked if they believe home care is superior to day care. It also examind whether would-be-parents would change their initial beliefs to conform to their plans and desires. The study concluded that evaluations of purported scientific evidence were shaped more by what would-be-parents desired to be true than by what they had initially believed to be true. *RESEARCH *HOME care services *CHILD care services PSYCHOLOGY DESIRE BELIEF & doubt

X-armed bandits

C. Szepesvári, S. Bubeck, R. Munos, G. STOLTZ

Journal of Machine Learning Research

2011, vol. 12, pp.1655-1695

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision

Mots clés : Bandits with infinitely many arms, Optimistic online optimization, Regret bounds, Minimax rates

We consider a generalization of stochastic bandits where the set of arms, X, is allowed to be a generic measurable space and the mean-payoff function is "locally Lipschitz" with respect to a dissimilarity function that is known to the decision maker. Under this condition we construct an arm selection policy, called HOO (hierarchical optimistic optimization), with improved regret bounds compared to previous results for a large class of problems. In particular, our results imply that if X is the unit hypercube in a Euclidean space and the mean-payoff function has a finite number of global maxima around which the behavior of the function is locally continuous with a known smoothness degree, then the expected regret of HOO is bounded up to a logarithmic factor by vn, that is, the rate of growth of the regret is independent of the dimension of the space. We also prove the minimax optimality of our algorithm when the dissimilarity is a metric. Our basic strategy has quadratic computational complexity as a function of the number of time steps and does not rely on the doubling trick. We also introduce a modified strategy, which relies on the doubling trick but runs in linearithmic time. Both results are improvements with respect to previous approaches.

You Said Successful? Actual and Perceived Performance of Venture Capital in France

K. Medjad, V. Gerasymenko, R. Grandsart, F. ISELIN, E. KRIEGER

International Journal of Business

automne 2011, vol. 16, n°4