Articles

What Makes the Names of Middle-earth So Fitting? Elements of Style in the Namecraft of J. R. R. Tolkien

Christopher ROBINSON

Names: A Journal of Onomastics

juin 2013, vol. 61, n°2, pp.65-74

Départements : Langues et Cultures

Mots clés : J. R. R. Tolkien, Literary onomaturgy, Literary onomastics, Names in fantasy literature


What makes a name ‘fitting’? Or, in closely related formulations, what makes a name ‘sound right’ or ‘ring true’? From the Cratylus to present-day studies in literary onomastics, the usual answer is that a name is fitting, right, or true for the person, place, or thing that bears it. The names in J. R. R. Tolkien’s fiction are fitting in this sense, reflecting by way of their source words, sound symbolism, or etymology some characteristic of their designees. At the same time, however, Tolkien insists that a name fit not only its designee, but also the phonological and morphological style of the nomenclature to which it belongs, as well as the linguistic scheme of his invented world. These elements of style are determined at the level of the nomenclature as a whole, independently from concerns with the motivation of individual names. The personal and place names of Middle-earth are thus fitting in more than the usual sense

What Remains of the Alien Tort Statute After Kiobel?

M. M. WINKLER

North Carolina Journal of International Law & Commercial Regulation

automne 2013, vol. 39, n°1, pp.171-190

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : *ACTIONS & defenses (Law) TORTS -- United States -- Cases KIOBEL v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co. (Supreme Court case) STATUTES -- United States -- States FEDERAL courts HUMAN rights -- Lawsuits & claims UNITED State


The article discusses the America's Alien Tort Statute (ATS) in the wake of the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in the 2013 case Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co. which deals with the ATS and the rules regarding torts-related lawsuits in U.S. federal courts. According to the article, the court in Kiobel determined that aliens cannot use the ATS to sue other parties when all of the relevant conduct in question took place outside of the U.S. Transnational human rights litigation is also examined

When it takes a bad person to do the right thing

E. L. UHLMANN, L. ZHU, D. TANNENBAUM

Cognition

février 2013, vol. 126, n°2, pp.326-334

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Person-centered moral judgments, Consequentialism, Leadership, Empathy, Act-person dissociations


Three studies demonstrate that morally praiseworthy behavior can signal negative information about an agent's character. In particular, consequentialist decisions such as sacrificing one life to save an even greater number of lives can lead to unfavorable character evaluations, even when they are viewed as the preferred course of action. In Study 1, throwing a dying man overboard to prevent a lifeboat from sinking was perceived as the morally correct course of action, but led to negative aspersions about the motivations and personal character of individuals who carried out such an act. In Studies 2 and 3, a hospital administrator who decided not to fund an expensive operation to save a child (instead buying needed hospital equipment) was seen as making a pragmatic and morally praiseworthy decision, but also as deficient in empathy and moral character


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