Communicating product size using sound and shape symbolism


Journal of Product and Brand Management

2015, vol. 24, n°5, pp.472-480

Départements : Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Brand name, Children, Brand meaning

Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to investigate children’s perception of a product’s physical attribute (size) when presented with brand elements (brand name and brand logo) manipulated using sound and shape symbolism principles (brand name sounds and brand logo shape), across children of different developmental ages.Design/methodology/approach– The relationship between sounds and shapes was examined in a pilot study. A 2 × 2 experiment was then undertaken to examine the effect of brand name characteristics (front vowel sound versus back vowel sound) and brand logo design (angular versus curved) on children’s (from 5 to 12 years) product-related judgments.Findings– Older children use non-semantic brand stimuli as a means to infer physical product attributes. Specifically, only older children are able to perceive a product to be smaller (larger) when the product is paired with a brand name containing a front (back) vowel sound or an angular (curved) brand logo (single symbolic cue). We illustrate that brand logo-related shape symbolism effects are weaker and appear later in age when compared with brand name-related sound symbolism effects. Further, younger children are able to infer product attribute meaning when exposed to two symbolic cues (that is, brand name and brand logo).Practical implications– When selecting an inventive brand element, consideration should be given to the relationship between the vowel sounds contained in a brand’s name and product attributes, and also the shape of the brand’s logo and product attributes.Originality/value– This is the first experiment undertaken to examine the combination of brand name- and brand logo-related symbolism effects in the context of children. We demonstrate that age-based bounds may be overcome through the provision of multiple symbolic cues

Competition and The Operational Performance of Hospitals: The Role of Hospital Objectives


Production and Operations Management

novembre 2015, vol. 24, n°11, pp.1812–1832

Départements : Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Hospitals, For-profit healthcare, Non-profit healthcare, Queueing models, Service provider competition

We examine the effect of a hospital's objective (i.e., non-profit versus for-profit) in hospital markets for elective care. Using game-theoretic analysis and queueing models to capture the operational performance of hospitals, we compare the equilibrium behavior of three market settings in terms of such criteria as waiting times and the total patient cost from waiting and hospital care payments. In the first setting, patients are served exclusively by a single non-profit hospital; in the second, patients are served by two competing non-profit hospitals. In our third setting, the market is served by one non-profit hospital and one for-profit hospital. A non-profit hospital provides free care to patients, although they may have to wait; for-profit hospitals charge a fee to provide care with minimal waiting. A comparison of the first two settings reveals that competition can hamper a hospital's ability to attain economies of scale and can also increase waiting times. A comparison between the second and third settings indicates that, when the public funder is not financially constrained, the presence of a for-profit sector may allow the funder to lower both the financial costs of providing coverage and the total costs to patients. Our analysis suggests that the public funder should exercise caution when using policy tools that support the for-profit sector -- for example, patient subsidies -- because such tools may increase patient costs in the long run; it might be preferable to raise the level of reimbursement to the non-profit sector.

C’era una Volta Kiobel: I Giudici Americani Tornano a Pronunciarsi sull’Extraterritorialità dell’Alien Tort Statute [Once Upon a Time, It Was Kiobel: American Courts Come Back to the Extraterritorialità of the Alien Tort Statute]


Diritto del Commercio Internazionale

2015, vol. 29, n°3, pp.885-906

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)

L’Alien Tort Statute, che conferisce alle corti federali giurisdizione in materiadi azioni di risarcimento dei danni promosse da stranieri per violazioni del dirittointernazionale, non può essere applicato extraterritorialmente neppure ove lasocietà convenuta abbia la propria sede negli Stati Uniti e la condotta contestatasi sia qui realizzata, in quanto tali circostanze non sono suf¿cienti per superare la presunzione di non-extraterritorialità che grava su ogni legge del Congresso

Default clauses in debt contracts


Review of Accounting Studies

décembre 2015, vol. 20, n°4, pp.1596-1637

Départements : Comptabilité et Contrôle de Gestion, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Events of default, Default clauses, Loan contracts, Bond contracts, Cross-default

We examine the determinants of events of default clauses in syndicated loan and bond contracts, provisions that allow lenders to request the repayment of principal and to terminate lending commitments. We document significant variation in the use of default clauses and their restrictiveness within the same type of lending contract but also across loans and bonds. We find that default clauses in public bond contracts are less restrictive than those in syndicated loan contracts. We also document that two ex ante proxies for bankruptcy costs, the level of intangible assets and capitalized research and development expenditures at the time of debt contracting, are associated with less restrictive default clauses, especially in bond contracts. We conclude that bondholders attempt to mitigate the occurrence of inefficient defaults. Given their inability to coordinate with each other and their ownership of subordinated claims, bondholders incur higher default costs than bank lenders

Défis au Bas de la Pyramide


Management International

printemps 2015, vol. 19, n°3, pp.65-82

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Bas de la Pyramide, Entreprises multinationales, Ethique des affaires, ONGs, Développement économique, Base of the Pyramid, MNEs, Business ethics, NGOs, Economic development

Le « Bas de la Pyramide » (BdP), est-il le nouvel Eldorado pour les entreprises, ou seulement un miroir aux alouettes? L’examen des activités « BdP » existantes montre que les entreprises ont beaucoup de mal à gagner de l’argent en offrant aux populations les plus pauvres de la planète des produits et des services qui sont censés contribuer à la résolution de problèmes sociaux ou environnementaux. Cet article suggère cependant que les entreprises doivent persévérer dans leurs efforts. Nous proposons des solutions pour surmonter les obstacles économiques, sociaux et politiques des projets « BdP » et discutons le rôle de ces initiatives en matière d’innovation et de croissance

Detecting heterogeneous risk attitudes with mixed gambles


Theory and Decision

décembre 2015, vol. 79, n°4, pp.573-600

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Individual risk taking behavior, Latent heterogeneity, Finite mixture models, Reference-dependence, Loss aversion

We propose a task for eliciting attitudes towards risk that is close to real world risky decisions which typically involve gains and losses. The task consists of accepting or rejecting gambles that provide a gain with probability p and a loss with probability 1 - p. We employ finite mixture models to uncover heterogeneity in risk preferences and find that (i) behavior is heterogeneous, with slightly less than one half of the subjects behaving as expected utility maximizers, (ii) for the others, reference-dependent models perform better than those where subjects derive utility from final outcomes, (iii) models with sign dependent decision weights perform better than those without, and (iv) there is no evidence for loss aversion. The procedure is sufficiently simple so that it can be easily used in field or lab experiments where risk elicitation is not the main experiment

Différencier les contributions des filiales d'une multinationale en matière d'innovation


Management International

été 2015, vol. 19, n°4, pp.34-48

Départements : Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Firme multinationale, Filiale, Innovation, Stratégie internationale, Etude de cas, Déploiement

Le renforcement du rôle des filiales dans la stratégie d'innovation de la Firme Multinationale (FMN) est souligné par différents travaux. Nous proposons quatre idéaux types différenciés de la contributions des filiales dans cette stratégie à partir d'un cadre analytique qui prolonge celui de Bartlett et Ghoshal (1989) et de l'étude du cas d'une FMN emblématique. Parallèlement aux " grandes historiques " et aux "implémenteurs", deux nouveaux types sont mis en avant; les " accélérateurs" et les "forts potentiels" qui développent des innovations susceptibles d'être déployées dans le reste de la FMN. Le type d'innovations que chaque type de filiale serait le plus à même de développer est également précisé.

Disentangling the Performance Effects of Efficiency and Bargaining Power in Horizontal Growth Strategies: An Empirical Investigation in the Global Retail Industry


Strategic Management Journal

mai 2015, vol. 36, n°5, pp.745-757

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Mergers and acquisitions (M&A), Organic growth, Bargaining power, Operating efficiency, Retail

Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and organic growth are two common strategies to achieve horizontal growth. In this study, we disentangle two distinct sources of firm performance corresponding to different theoretical perspectives on firm size: firms' bargaining power with respect to suppliers and customers, and operating efficiency arising from scale economies. We conceptually argue and empirically show that relatively, M&A enhance bargaining power in the short term while organic growth enhances operating efficiency over the long term. In order to disaggregate these effects, we use accounting rather than financial or managerial data and test our predictions in the global retail industry over a 20-year period. We examine implications of these results for sustainability of size-based competitive advantages

Do Rating Agencies Cater? – Evidence from Rating-Based Contracts


Journal of Accounting and Economics

2015, vol. 59, pp.264-283

Départements : Comptabilité et Contrôle de Gestion

Mots clés : Rating agencyOff-balance-sheet financeSoft informationDebt contracting

I examine whether rating agencies cater to borrowers with rating-based performance-priced loan contracts (PPrating firms). I use data from Moody׳s Financial Metrics on its quantitative adjustments for off-balance-sheet debt and qualitative adjustments for soft factors. In the cross-section and for borrowers experiencing adverse economic shocks, I find that these adjustments are more favorable for PPrating firms than for other firms, consistent with rating agencies catering to the PPrating borrowers. I find that this catering is muted in two circumstances when rating agencies׳ reputational costs are higher than usual: (1) near the investment grade and prime short-term rating thresholds and (2) when Fitch Ratings also provides a rating

Does Emotional Intelligence Matter in Interpersonal Processes? The Mediating Role of Emotion Management


Seoul Journal of Business

décembre 2015, vol. 21, n°2, pp.45-70

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Emotional intelligence, Emotion management, Interpersonal behavior, Negotiation

Researchers have identified emotional intelligence (EI) as an importantindividual characteristic that predicts interpersonal effectiveness. In thisstudy, we identified three potential areas of emotion management (emotionexpression, emotion recognition, and shaping counterpart emotion) thatmay be promoted by intrapersonal and interpersonal EI, and may mediatethe effects of EI on interpersonal process and outcomes. Our analysisof data from a dyadic negotiation simulation indicates that EI predictsone aspect of emotion management (shaping counterpart emotion).Intrapersonal EI (but not interpersonal EI) increased counterpart positiveemotion and decreased counterpart negative emotion during the negotiationsimulation. Nevertheless, the overall relationship between EI and emotionmanagement was weak. The present study highlighted the need for clearlyconceptualizing and investigating emotional management through whichindividuals accrue interpersonal and performance benefits