Articles

Developing knowledge from entrepreneurial actions – toward a taxonomy

T. PARIS, S. JOUINI, S. BUREAU

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development

2017, vol. 24, n°4, pp.793-813

Départements : GREGHEC (CNRS), Information Systems and Operations Management

Mots clés : Experiential learning, Qualitative method, Knowledge development, Entrepreneurial learning


Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to enrich our understanding of entrepreneurs’ daily deeds, tasks and activities. The research investigates the ways in which entrepreneurs seize opportunities and gain knowledge from the start to the expansion of their ventures.Design/methodology/approach – Two case studies were developed based on a longitudinal fine-grained analysis of two ventures over two years. Entrepreneurs’ success and learning were modeled in line with grounded theory methodology. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources in the form of semi-structured interviews and archival documentation.Findings – The authors develop an original conceptual framework that consists of ten entrepreneurial learning opportunities and four knowledge development modes. There are ten generic types of actions that entrepreneurs take. There are then four distinctive ways to transform these experiences into knowledge. The model is assessed in absolute terms and relatively to existing taxonomies.Research limitations/implications – The findings question the premises on which entrepreneurial learning research traditionally relies. Opportunities can be open-ended rather than purely instrumental. Similarly, knowledge can be emerging as much as it can be espoused. This opens-up space for further research.Practical implications – For practitioners, the findings suggest new ways for making sense of the daily experience of their entrepreneurial endeavor. The learning modes suggested can be used by coaches and mentors when helping entrepreneurs in their venture.Originality/value – The research provides empirical evidence of what entrepreneurs do. This may help cast traditional debates about what there is to do (logical necessity) and what there is to know (a priori knowledge) in a new light.

Drift or alignment? A configurational analysis of law firms' ability to combine profitability with professionalism

M. LANDER, P. P . M. A. R. HEUGENS, J. H. VAN OOSTERHOUT

Journal of Professions and Organization

juillet 2017, vol. 4, n°2, pp.123-148

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

https://academic.oup.com/jpo/article-abstract/4/2/123/2960704?redirectedFrom=fulltext


Hybrid structures are the result of an adaptation process through which organizations come to adhere to the demands of the multiple logics they face. Yet many unanswered questions regarding the effects of hybridity on securing organizational goals remain. In this article, we focus on law firms, hybrids that have to reach the dual objectives of profits and professionalism, rooted in the commercial/managerial and professional/trustee logics, respectively. Drawing on the institutional logics, professional service firms, and configurational theory literatures, and using set-theoretic methods on survey data collected on 278 Dutch law firms, we explore how organizational design elements that are congruent with the aforementioned logics are combined and how they contribute to securing different organizational goals. We find evidence of different types of hybrid structures occurring alongside one another, which tend to score differently on the performance dimensions. First, dominant hybrids assure superior performance along either the profitability or the professionalism dimension. Second, certain hybrids have experienced slippage. Whereas these slipped hybrids outperform in one dimension, they underperform on the alternative dimension due to their excessive focus. We also find evidence of a few aligned configurations. These ensure above-average results along both outcome dimensions, either by adopting a balanced set of core practices or by achieving balance in their overall configuration. Finally, when faced with organizational contingencies that force law firms to adopt more formal practices, these aligned hybrids restore their configurational balance by adopting core practices rooted in the professional logic

Dynamic Dependence and Diversification in Corporate Credit

Peter CHRISTOFFERSEN, Kris JACOBS, Xisong JIN, H. LANGLOIS-BERTRAND

Review of Finance

2017, pp.1-40

Départements : Finance, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Credit risk, Default risk, CDS, Dynamic dependence, Copula

https://academic.oup.com/rof/article/doi/10.1093/rof/rfx034/3980187/Dynamic-Dependence-and-Diversification-in


We characterize dependence in corporate credit and equity returns for 215 firms using a new class of large-scale dynamic copula models. Copula dependence and especially tail dependence are highly variable and persistent, increase significantly in the financial crisis, and have remained high since. The most drastic increases in credit dependence occur in July/August of 2007 and in August of 2011 and the decrease in diversification potential caused by the increases in dependence and tail dependence is large. Credit default swap correlation dynamics are important determinants of credit spreads

Effects of inter-group status on the pursuit of intra-group status

J. W. CHANG, Rosalind CHOW, Anita WOOLLEY

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

mars 2017, vol. 139, pp.1–17

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Inter-group status; Intra-group status; Cooperation; Competition

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749597816301418


This research examines how the status of one’s group influences intra-group behavior and collective outcomes. Two experiments provide evidence that, compared to members of low-status groups, members of high-status groups are more concerned about their intra-group standing, which in turn can increase both the likelihood of competitive and cooperative intra-group behavior. However, whether the desire for intra-group standing manifests via competitive versus cooperative behavior depends on the relevance of the task to the group’s inter-group standing. When the task is not clearly relevant to the group’s status, members of high-status groups are more likely to engage in competitive behavior out of a desire to manage their intra-group status, which, in turn, leads to less desirable collective outcomes. However, when the group’s status is at stake, members of high-status groups seek intra-group status via cooperative behavior, leading to better collective outcomes.

Estimating Value Creation from Revealed Preferences: Application to Value-Based Strategies

O. CHATAIN, D. MINDRUTA

Strategic Management Journal

octobre 2017, vol. 38, pp.1964-1985

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : buyer–supplier relationships; client-speciceconomies of scope; cooperative game theory; revealedpreferences; value-based strategy

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/smj.2633/epdf


We develop and apply a new set of empirical tools consistent with the tenets of value-based business strategies, leveraging the principle that “no good deal comes undone” and the methods of revealed preferences to empirically estimate drivers of value creation. We demonstrate how to use these tools in an analysis of value creation in buyer–supplier relationships in the UK corporate legal market. We show how the method can uncover evidence of subtle mechanisms that traditional methods cannot easily distinguish from each other. Furthermore, we show how these estimates can be used as parameters of biform games for out-of-sample analyses of strategic decisions. With readily available data on relationships between firms, this approach can be applied to many other contexts of interest to strategy researchers

Evaluative Infrastructures: Accounting for distributed network production

Martin KORNBERGER, D. PFLUEGER, Jan MOURITSEN

Accounting Organizations and Society

juillet 2017, vol. 60, n°7, pp.79-95

Départements : Comptabilité et Contrôle de Gestion

Mots clés : AccountingHierarchical consciousnessEvaluationInfrastructurePlatform organization

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0361368217300351#!


Platform organizations such as Uber, eBay and Airbnb represent a growing disruptive phenomenon in contemporary capitalism, transforming economic organization, the nature of work, and the distribution of wealth. This paper investigates the accounting practices that underpin this new form of organizing, and in doing so confronts a significant challenge within the accounting literature: the need to escape what Hopwood (1996) describes as its “hierarchical consciousness”. In order to do so, this paper develops the concept of evaluative infrastructure which describes accounting practices that enable platform based organization. They are evaluative because they deploy a plethora of interacting devices, including rankings, ratings, reviews, and audits to establish orders of worth. They are infrastructures because they provide the invisible yet essential mechanisms for the flow of economic activity and exchange on platforms. Illustrating the concept of evaluative infrastructure with the example of eBay, the paper's contribution is to (1) provide an analytical vocabulary to capture the accounting practices underpinning platforms as new organizational forms, and in so doing (2) extend accounting scholars' analytical focus from hierarchical settings towards heterarchies. Conceptually, this shift from management accounting to evaluative infrastructures entails a focus on relationality (evaluative infrastructures do not represent or reference but relate things, people and ideas with each other); generativity (evaluative infrastructures do not territorialize objects but disclose new worlds); and new forms of control (evaluative infrastructures are not centres of calculation; rather, control is radically distributed, whilst power remains centralized).

Experimentations in emerging innovation ecosystems: Specificities and roles. The case of the hydrogen energy fuel cell

S. JOUINI, F. CHARUE-DUBOC

International Journal of Technology Management

2017, vol. 75, n°1-4, pp.28-54

Départements : GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : systemic innovation; innovation ecosystem; experimentation; prototyping; ecosystem emergence; complete solution experiment; CSE; fuel cell; hydrogen energy

http://www.inderscience.com/info/inarticle.php?artid=85699


Little research has focused on the way an innovation ecosystem emerges and specifically what processes and tools support it. We argue that as in innovation development processes, experimentation may generate knowledge and reduce the uncertainties associated with this emergence. Based on a longitudinal study of hydrogen energy solutions that require a novel ecosystem, we outline four specificities of the experiments performed, designated as complete solution experiments, and their role in this emergence. They: 1) involve all the players required so as to deliver and operate a complete solution; 2) target real customers using the innovation in real conditions over a significant period of time; 3) are highly refined (components and complements are representative of an industrial offer); 4) are transparent on how the data generated will be exploited and shared with all the players who commit to the experiment, who are thus assured that they will acquire validated information

Fair and Equitable Treatment in Investor-State Dispute Settlement: A New Interpretative Framework

D. RESTREPO AMARILES, A. VAN WAEYENBERGE

Journal of Business Law

2017, vol. 8, pp.632-650

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)


The fair and equitable treatment (FET) standard has become the cornerstone of investor-state dispute settlement, and one of the most disputed notions in international business law. With investors facing increasing uncertainty, and states moving closer to denouncing treaties they see as limiting their sovereign right to regulate, FET has come to pose a significant risk to the entire investor-state dispute resolution system. This paper outlines an alternative way to consider FET, by acknowledging its thick and indeterminate character as a legal standard. It argues that previous traditional taxonomies have inherent limitations, and that practitioners should instead seek to understand the FET standard through the lens of the rule of law. The paper offers an analysis of the jurisprudence of the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) to show that three principles of the rule of law – due process, legal certainty, and the prohibition of arbitrariness – constitute an operational and certain, yet flexible framework of interpretation for the application of the FET standard

Financial Transaction Taxes, Market Composition, and Liquidity

J. E. COLLIARD, Peter HOFFMANN

The Journal of Finance

décembre 2017, vol. 72, n°6, pp.2685–2716

Départements : Finance, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Financial transaction tax, institutional trading, liquidity, high-frequency trading

http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2215788


We use the introduction of a financial transaction tax (FTT) in France in 2012 to test competing theories on the impact of FTTs. We find no support for the idea that an FTT improves market quality by affecting the composition of trading volume. Instead, our results are in line with the idea that a lower trading volume reduces liquidity, and thereby market quality. Consistent with theories of asset pricing under transaction costs, we document a shift in security holdings from short-term to long-term institutional investors. More generally, our findings confirm that moderate aggregate effects on market quality can mask large adjustments made by individual market participants

France’s Commercial courts: a good example of the administration of justice by ordinary citizens

N. STOLOWY, M. BROCHIER

Journal of Business Law

2017, vol. 1, pp.1-22

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Accessto justice; Commercial law; Courts' powers and duties;France; Judges; Legal history

https://1.next.westlaw.com/Document/I23461760B0A411E6B1DFACFF35803E0B/View/FullText.html?navigationPath=Search%2Fv1%2Fresults%2Fnavigation%2Fi0ad6ad3b0000015fc9730919545f7414%3FNav%3DINTERNATIONAL-ANALYTICAL%26fragmentIdentifier%3DI23461760B0A411E6B1DFACF


Commercial courts occupy a highly specific position in the French judiciary landscape, since their judges are elected.French commercial court judges are not members of the legal professions but business executives and tradespeoplechosen by their peers. This encourages a pragmatic view that takes into account the economic constraints faced by companies. InFrance, certain courts of first instance,such asthe commercial courts, delegate the function of judgment to ordinary citizens, whereas in most courts of first instance, and the appeal courts Cour d’appel and Cour de cassation, only full-time professional magistrates can rule on the cases brought before the court


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