Do not Wait to Reveal the Brand Name

C. A. RUSSELL, H. Honea, W. Baker

Journal of Advertising

automne 2004, vol. 33, n°3, pp.77-86

Départements : Marketing

Is advertising more effective when the advertised brand name is revealed at the onset of an advertising message or when it is withheld until the end of the message? Given the propensity of advertising to withhold the brand name, advertisers apparently presume the latter, perhaps because they believe that the practice sustains attention to the advertisement. The network model of memory and related theories of associative learning imply superior advertising effectiveness when the brand name is presented at the beginning of an advertisement. An experiment was conducted to test this proposition. Several award-winning television advertisements were remastered to reveal the brand name either at the beginning or at the end of the spot. The results support the prediction that advertising is more effective when the brand name appears at the beginning of the advertisement. Evidence is consistent with the conclusion that the effect was caused by strengthening the memory association between the brand name and the evaluative implications of advertising content, not by any effect of brand-name placement on advertising liking, memory for the brand name, or accessibility to advertisement content

Efficient Consumption Set under Recursive Utility and Unknown Beliefs

A. LAZRAK, F. Zapatero

Journal of Monetary Economics

2004, vol. 40, pp.207-226

Départements : Finance

Efficient Scheduling RuleS in a Combined Make-to-Stock and Make-to-Order Manufacturing System

K. Youssef, C. VAN DELFT, Y. Dallery

Annals of Operations Reseach

février 2004, vol. 126, n°1-4, pp.103-134

Départements : Informations Systems and Operations Management, GREGHEC (CNRS)

In this paper, we consider a mixed MTS/MTO policy to manage a single manufacturing facility producing two classes of end-products. A few end-products have high volume demands, whereas a fairly large number of end-products have low volume demands. In this situation, it is appealing to try to produce the high volume products according to an MTS policy and the low volume products according to an MTO policy. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the impact of the choice of the scheduling policy on the overall performance of the system. We consider two policies: the classical FIFO policy and a priority policy (PR). The PR policy gives priority to production orders corresponding to low volume products over production orders corresponding to high volume products. Under some simple stochastic modeling assumptions, we develop analytical/numerical solutions to optimise each system. We then provide insights regarding this issue with the help of numerical examples. It appears that for some range of parameters, the PR rule can outperform the FIFO rule in the sense that, to achieve the same service level constraint, the corresponding cost under the PR rule is much lower. This situation is encountered when the low volume products can be managed with an MTO policy under the PR scheduling rule, while they have to be managed according to an MTS policy under the FIFO scheduling rule. We also derive some theoretical properties that support our empirical findings.

Evolution and Co-Optation. The "artist critique" of management and capitalism: evolution and co-optation


Third Text

2004, vol. 18, n°6, pp.585-594

Départements : Comptabilité et Contrôle de Gestion

'Artist critique' is an umbrella term, synthesising the many forms of critique first levelled against the new industrial capitalist, and bourgeois society of the nineteenth century, largely by artists in the name of freedom and individual fulfilment. Though many artists gave voice to this form of critique, they were neither the only ones to do so, nor did all artists participate in this movement. As a current of critical thought that has spanned modern society for almost two centuries, the social role of 'artist critique' is essential if the aspiration for a freer life -freed, that is, from the constraints of commodities - is to prosper. It is at the root of the intuitive opposition that can be made between art worlds and business worlds, between profit imperatives and those of artistic creation. Yet it must be acknowledged that over the past two decades this form of critique has fallen into unprecedented crisis. After first presenting what I understand by 'artist critique' and specifying its conditions of emergence, I will attempt to analyse some of the root causes of this crisis in the critique of capitalism. One of the key aspects to be analysed is neo-management's adoption of practices similar to those found in the art world. In many respects, one might say that neo-management practices are the result of paying careful attention to the complaints articulated by 'artist. critique'. In short, it is precisely the success of 'artist critique' that has led to its being co-opted by its adversary and losing so much of its poignancy.

Executive Insights: Real Differences Between Local and International Brands: Strategic Implications for International Marketers

I. Schuiling, J.-N. KAPFERER

Journal of International Marketing

2004, vol. 12, n°4, pp.97-123

Départements : Marketing

In this article, the authors question whether the elimination of local brands represents a lost opportunity for companies. In the current context of globalization, firms have concentrated their efforts on international brands. As a result, they have restructured their international brand portfolios and have removed many successful local brands. Not only has the fast-moving consumer goods sector experienced this trend but the banking, insurance, oil, and retailing sectors, among others, have as well. International brands might offer undisputable advantages, but local brands have traditionally built close relationships with consumers over the years, representing years of investment in their markets. The authors' objective is to improve the understanding of the real differences between local and international brands. To date, no study has been conducted in this area. Managers are regularly confronted with the question of putting together the best portfolio. They must decide not only how to develop their international brands but also which local brands to build or to eliminate. In this article, the authors present their exploratory research of the extensive Young and Rubicam brand database 'Brand Asset Valuator.' They reexamine 744 food industry brands on the basis of interviews conducted with 9739 people across the four largest countries in Europe (United Kingdom, Germany, France, and Italy). The results indicate that local brands benefit from strong brand equity. Local brands benefit more from higher consumer awareness than international brands do, and they enjoy a strong image. In addition, they benefit more not only from customer perceptions of good quality but also from perceptions of better value and trust than do international brands. The authors find that trust represents a significant advantage and creates a unique relationship with consumers that can only be enhanced over the years. An international brand cannot necessarily reproduce such a unique relationship with consumers, even if there is substantial investment in marketing. The exploratory research also indicates that local brands can offer strategic advantages that international marketers should consider; they provide greater strategic flexibility in many marketing areas, such as product development, pricing, and positioning. On the basis of the results, Schuiling and Kapferer suggest that companies should develop brand portfolios with a balanced mix of strong local and international brands, thus helping minimize the risk usually associated with a portfolio of mostly international brands. Development of new local brands could also be a way to generate ideas that could be transformed into successful international brands at some point. The authors conclude by recommending that international marketers consider the substantial long-term advantage of owning brands with strong equity, even at the local level. In view of the difficulty of building strong brand franchises, especially when product differentiation is difficult to achieve, strong brands are essential differentiating assets.

Exploiting the opportunities of internet and multi-channel pricing: an exploratory research

F. SOTGIU, F. Ancarani

Journal of Product and Brand Management

2004, vol. 13, n°2-3, pp.125-136

Départements : Marketing

Smart firms are not worried about the impact of the Internet on pricing, but realise that they have the unique opportunity to exploit new options and improve their marketing performance. Multi-channel pricing is one of the most interesting opportunities firms can exploit in the digital economy. Reviews the existing literature on pricing on the Internet and on multi-channel pricing. Presents the results of an exploratory research on price opportunities perceived by firms. Offers a picture of the possible multi-channel options available to firms and highlights the importance of the value for and of the customer. Customers.InternetPricingValue-in-use pricing

Exposure to violent video games increases automatic aggressiveness

E. L. UHLMANN, J. Swanson

Journal of Adolescence

février 2004, vol. 27, n°1, pp.41-52

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves withaggres sive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposureto violent video games predicted automatic aggressive self-concept, above and beyond self-reported aggression. Results suggest that playing violent video games can lead to the automatic learning of aggressive self-views.

Fading Legitimacies in Organized Contexts

R. DURAND, J. McGuire

International Studies of Management and Organization

hiver 2004, vol. 34, n°4, pp.3-6

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Femmes et carrières : la question du plafond de verre


Revue Française de Gestion

octobre 2004, n°151

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Financial Innovation, Market Participation and Asset Prices

L. E. CALVET, M. Gonzalez-Eiras, P. Sodini

Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis

septembre 2004, vol. 39, n°3, pp.431-459

Départements : Finance, GREGHEC (CNRS)

This paper investigates the pricing effects of financial innovation in an economy with endogenous participation and heterogeneous income risks. The introduction of non-redundant assets endogenously modifies the participation set, reduces the covariance between dividends and participants' consumption and thus leads to lower risk premia. In multisector economies, financial innovation spreads across markets through the diversified portfolio of new entrants, and has rich effects on the cross-section of expected returns. The price changes can also lead some investors to leave the markets and give rise to non-degenerate forms of participation turnover. The model is consistent with several features of financial markets over the past few decades: substantial innovation, higher participation, significant turnover in investor composition, improved risk management practices, a slight increase in real interest rates, and a reduction in risk premia