The problem of the null in the verification of unconscious cognition


Behavioral and Brain Sciences

février 2014, vol. 37, n°1, pp.42-43

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines


Newell & Shanks (N&S) argue that when awareness measures are more reliable and valid, greater evidence of awareness of supposedly unconscious influences is revealed. A related issue is that unconsciousness is typically the null hypothesis that evidence of awareness will not emerge. As it is difficult to conclude the null, it is also difficult to conclude a lack of conscious awareness

Unlikely allies: Credibility transfer during a corporate crisis

J. Heinze, E. L. UHLMANN, D. Diermeier

Journal of Applied Social Psychology

mai 2014, vol. 44, n°5, pp.392-397

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

A company that faces a crisis can reestablish trust with stakeholders by announcing an independent investigation by a third party. Announcing an independent investigation, without knowing its outcome, significantly restored attitudes toward the company while an internal investigation was ineffective. Liberals responded most positively to a company that invited an independent investigation by a consumer advocacy group (Study 1). Experimentally activating liberal values using an implicit priming procedure likewise enhanced credibility transfer from a consumer advocacy group's investigation to a company in crisis (Study 2)

When actions speak volumes: The role of inferences about moral character in outrage over racial bigotry


European Journal of Social Psychology

février 2014, vol. 44, n°1, pp.23-29

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Person-centered moral judgments, Act-person dissociations, Informational value, Racism, Prejudice, Racial slurs

Inferences about moral character may often drive outrage over symbolic acts of racial bigotry. Study 1 demonstrates a theoretically predicted dissociation between moral evaluations of an act and the person who carries out the act. Although Americans regarded the private use of a racial slur as a less blameworthy act than physical assault, use of a slur was perceived as a clearer indicator of poor moral character. Study 2 highlights the dynamic interplay between moral judgments of acts and persons, demonstrating that first making person judgments can bias subsequent act judgments. Privately defacing a picture of Martin Luther King, Jr. led to greater moral condemnation of the agent than of the act itself only when the behavior was evaluated first. When Americans first made character judgments, symbolically defacing a picture of the civil rights leader was significantly more likely to be perceived as an immoral act. These studies support a person-centered account of outrage over bigotry and demonstrate that moral evaluations of acts and persons converge and diverge under theoretically meaningful circumstances

Acting professional: An exploration of culturally bounded norms against nonwork role referencing


Journal of Organizational Behavior

août 2013, vol. 34, n°6, pp.866-886

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Hiring evaluations, Multicultural environments, Professional norms, Role referencing, U.S. culture

This article presents three studies examining how cross-cultural variation in assumptions about the appropriateness of referencing nonwork roles while in work settings creates consequential impressions that affect professional outcomes. Study 1 reveals a perceived norm limiting the referencing of nonwork roles at work and provides evidence that it is a U.S. norm by showing that awareness of it varies as a function of tenure living in the United States. Studies 2 and 3 examine the implications of the norm for evaluations of job candidates. Study 2 finds that U.S. but not Indian participants negatively evaluate job candidates who endorse nonwork role referencing as a strategy to create rapport and shows that this cultural difference is largest among participants most familiar with norms of professionalism, those with prior recruiting experience. Study 3 finds that corporate job recruiters from the United States negatively evaluate candidates who endorse nonwork role referencing as a means of building rapport with a potential business partner. This research underlines the importance of navigating initial interactions in culturally appropriate ways to facilitate the development of longer-term collaborations and negotiation success

Boarding the Aircraft: Trust Development Amongst Negotiators of a Complex Merger

M. LANDER, L. Kooning

Journal of Management Studies

janvier 2013, vol. 50, n°1, pp.1-30

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : M&A, Negotiations, Process Study, Trust

We explore trust development in the context of an international merger negotiation. Based on in-depth interviews with chief negotiators of the Air France-KLM merger we contribute to existing theory by showing that trust develops in three interrelated domains: personal, process and outcome. Progressively, trust develops in all domains on the basis of antecedents that differ between phases and domains. Distinguishing between different domains facilitates analysis of trust asymmetry and the co-existence of trust and distrust, as well as the influence of trust in interorganizational relationships

Change and stability interaction processes in SMEs: a comparative case study


Journal of Organizational Change Management

2013, vol. 26, n°2, pp.370-422

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Case studies, Change, Change management, ISO 9000 series, Mexico, Small firms, Stability

The aim of this paper is to explore interactions between change and stability during the implementation of a specific change initiative (ISO 9000). It attempts to develop a theoretical framework on change and stability management in small firmsDesign/methodology/approach – This research uses a process approach based on retrospective comparative case study methodology. Data collection in the six companies lasted over a year. This gives the opportunity to contrast failed change initiatives against successful ones.Findings – Two models emerged from this approach; they support the notion that change and stability could be complementary during the different phases of the change initiative the authors analyzed. The findings show that total absence of stability variables in the change initiative could have negative effect on results.Research limitations/implications – The research is based on a multiple case study approach, which limits the generalizability of the findings.Originality/value – This is one of the first studies that applies and empirically tests the change and stability relation in small firms

Committed to Professionalism: Organizational responses of Mid-tier Accounting firms to conflicting institutional logics

M. LANDER, B. A. S. Koene, S. Linssen

Accounting Organizations and Society

février 2013, vol. 38, n°2, pp.130-148

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

We study how mid-tier accounting firms deal with changes in their institutional environment that resulted in a shift in emphasis from the trustee logic to the commercial logic. We find that these mid-tier firms selectively adopt practices related to the commercial logic, while retaining a principal commitment to the trustee logic. Interviews with high level informants in these firms show how specific strategic choice opportunities serve as independent critical events framing practice-adoption decisions. Main strategic issues for the mid-tier firms relate to the changing role of the accountant and changes in organizational structure and practices. As these issues fundamentally challenge characteristics of their professional identity, there is internal resistance against this transformation. Non-partnered accountants mainly challenge new roles that upset their extant work routines, whereas partners resist changes affecting their autonomy. These types of resistance directly impact the strategic organizational responses of the accounting firms to institutional pressures

Do Women Choose Different Jobs from Men? Mechanisms of Application Segregation in the Market for Managerial Workers


Organization Science

mai-juin 2013, vol. 24, n°3, pp.737-756

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Gender segregation, Hiring, Job applications, Supply side, Matching, Careers, Financial Services industry, Gender roles, Identification, Work–life balance

This paper examines differences in the jobs for which men and women apply in order to better understand gender segregation in managerial jobs. We develop and test an integrative theory of why women might apply to different jobs than men. We note that constraints based on gender role socialization may affect three determinants of job applications: how individuals evaluate the rewards provided by different jobs, whether they identify with those jobs, and whether they believe that their applications will be successful. We then develop hypotheses about the role of each of these decision factors in mediating gender differences in job applications. We test these hypotheses using the first direct comparison of how similarly qualified men and women apply to jobs, based on data on the job searches of MBA students. Our findings indicate that women are less likely than men to apply to finance and consulting jobs and are more likely to apply to general management positions. These differences are partly explained by women’s preference for jobs with better anticipated work–life balance, their lower identification with stereotypically masculine jobs, and their lower expectations of job offer success in such stereotypically masculine jobs. We find no evidence that women are less likely to receive job offers in any of the fields studied. These results point to some of the ways in which gender differences can become entrenched through the long-term expectations and assumptions that job candidates carry with them into the application process.

It pays to be Herr Kaiser: Germans with noble-sounding surnames more often work as managers


Psychological Science

décembre 2013, vol. 24, n°12, pp.2437-2444

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Associative processes, Organizations, Social cognition

In the field study reported here (N = 222,924), we found that Germans with noble-sounding surnames, such as Kaiser (“emperor”), König (“king”), and Fürst (“prince”), more frequently hold managerial positions than Germans with last names that either refer to common everyday occupations, such as Koch (“cook”), Bauer (“farmer”), and Becker/Bäcker (“baker”), or do not refer to any social role. This phenomenon occurs despite the fact that noble-sounding surnames never indicated that the person actually held a noble title. Because of basic properties of associative cognition, the status linked to a name may spill over to its bearer and influence his or her occupational outcomes

Les processus psychiques au sein des groupes de travail : au-delà de Bion et de Pichon-Rivière


Nouvelle Revue de Psychosociologie

printemps 2013, vol. 15, pp.163-182

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : Anxiétés, hypothèses de base, groupe de travail, processus inconscients, tâche, activité

Cet article vise à explorer les processus psychiques au sein des groupes de travail. En partant des recherches pionnières du psychanalyste anglais Bion et du psychanalyste argentin Pichon-Rivière, l’auteur montre que les anxiétés sous-jacentes à la réalisation de la tâche décrites par ces auteurs n’ont pas nécessairement un caractère général dans la mesure où elles ont été observées principalement dans des groupes de formation et de thérapie. D’où sa proposition de phénomènes inconscients complémentaires dès lors que la tâche présente une dimension opératoire et que le groupe de travail est inséré dans un contexte organisationnel. Dans une dernière partie, l’auteur détaille les capacités psychologiques individuelles sollicitées par le travail en groupe et les perspectives, en termes de formation et d’intervention, que son approche implique