Construction of Relations with Distant Suppliers on the Cognitive and Relational Dimensions to Co-Explore Discontinuous Innovations / Construction des relations avec des fournisseurs distants sur les plans cognitifs et relationnels pour co-explorer des in


Innovations, Revue d’économie et de management de l'innovation

2018, vol. 1, n°55, pp.61-87

Départements : GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : innovation discontinue, implication des fournisseurs, fournisseurs distants, open innovation, exploration, organisation ambidextre / discontinuous innovation, suppliers contribution, distant suppliers, open innovation, exploration, organizational ambidextry

Co-explorer des concepts avec des fournisseurs distants, sur les plans cognitifs et relationnels, favorise l’identification d’innovations discontinues. Cependant, peu de travaux s’intéressent aux modalités de construction de ces relations. Sur la base d’une étude longitudinale d’une entreprise qui a co-exploré des innovations discontinues avec des fournisseurs distants, nous mettons en évidence de manière inductive deux caractéristiques du processus et de l’organisation adoptée pour construire ces relations. Nous soulignons la transparence du processus de co-exploration qui soutient un engagement progressif mutuel. Ce processus est porté par un acteur dédié, ayant accès à la fois aux experts techniques ainsi qu’aux dirigeants de l’entreprise qui prennent les décisions stratégiques en matière de domaines d’innovation et de développement. Cet acteur est ainsi un des vecteurs de l’ambidextrie organisationnelle de l’entreprise puisqu’il permet le développement de ces relations parallèlement aux relations de long terme avec des partenaires privilégiés

Differential Firm Commitment to Industries Supported by Social Movement Organizations


Organization Science

janvier-février 2018, vol. 29, n°1, pp.154-171

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : organization and management theory, strategy and policy, sustainability/corporate environmentalism, economic sociology, nonmarket/political environment

This article theorizes about and tests the conditions under which firms’ commitment to an industry is influenced by social movement organizations (SMOs) that favor the industry. We argue that the more prominent SMOs are within an industry, the more a firm increases its commitment to that industry by expanding its operations; yet, this main effect should be moderated substantially by a firm’s idiosyncratic characteristics. The current research predicts that a firm’s location, its sensitivity to information about the industry’s potential, and its history of associations with activists determine the magnitude of the effect of SMO prominence on its strategic commitment to the industry. We test and find support for these hypotheses using a longitudinal data set of European manufacturers of solar photovoltaic cells between 1990 and 2011. The findings offer new insights for literature on social movements and organizations, as well as strategic management research

Dynamic Atomic Congestion Games with Seasonal Flows


Operations Research

mars-avril 2018, vol. 66, n°2, pp.327-339

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : network games, dynamic flows, price of anarchy, price of stability, Braess ratio, max-flow min-cut

We propose a model of discrete time dynamic congestion games with atomic players and a single source-destination pair. The latencies of edges are composed by free-flow transit times and possible queuing time due to capacity constraints. We give a precise description of the dynamics induced by the individual strategies of players and of the corresponding costs, either when the traffic is controlled by a planner, or when players act selfishly. In parallel networks, optimal and equilibrium behavior eventually coincides, but the selfish behavior of the first players has consequences that cannot be undone and are paid by all future generations. In more general topologies, our main contributions are three-fold. First, we show that equilibria are usually not unique. In particular, we prove that there exists a sequence of networks such that the price of anarchy is equal to n-1, where n is the number of vertices, and the price of stability is equal to 1.Second, we illustrate a new dynamic version of Braess's paradox: the presence of initial queues in a network may decrease the long-run costs in equilibrium. This paradox may arise even in networks for which no Braess's paradox was previously known.Third, we propose an extension to model seasonalities by assuming that departure flows fluctuate periodically over time. We introduce a measure that captures the queues induced by periodicity of inflows. This measure is the increase in costs compared to uniform departures for optimal and equilibrium flows in parallel networks

Financing Capacity Investment Under Demand Uncertainty: An Optimal Contracting Approach


Manufacturing & Service Operations Management

hiver 2018, vol. 20, n°1, pp.85-96

Départements : Finance, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Capacity, Optimal Contracts, Financial Constraints, Newsvendor Model

We study the capacity choice problem of a firm whose access to capital is hampered by financial frictions in the form of moral hazard. The firm must therefore optimize not only its capacity investment under demand uncertainty, but also its sourcing of funds. Ours is the first study of this problem to follow an optimal contracting approach, where feasible source of funds are derived endogenously from fundamentals and include standard financial claims (debt, equity, convertible debt, call and put warrants, etc.) and combinations thereof. We characterize the optimal capacity level. First, we find conditions under which a feasible financial contract exists that achieves first-best. When no such contract exists, we find that under optimal financing, the choice of capacity sometimes exceeds strictly the efficient level. This runs counter to the literature on financing capacity investment in funds and the intuition that by raising the cost of external capital and hence the unit capacity cost, financial market frictions lower the optimal capacity level. We trace the value of increasing capacity beyond the efficient level to a bonus effect and a demand differentiation effect. In contrast to most of the literature on financing capacity, our results are robust to a change of financial contract

Incentives and the structure of communication


Journal of Economic Theory

mai 2018, vol. 175, pp.201-247

Départements : GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Communication, Incentives, Information transmission, Networks, Communication equilibrium, Secure communication

This paper analyzes the issue of implementing correlated and communication equilibria when pre-play communication is restricted to a particular network (e.g., a hierarchy). When communication between the mediator and the players is not direct and private, as assumed when invoking the revelation principle, there may be incentives for other players in the communication network to misbehave while players report their private information to the mediator and the mediator sends suggested actions to the players. To remedy this issue, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions on the topology of the network of communication such that restricting communication between the mediator and the players to a particular network does not restrict the set of (communication equilibrium) outcomes that could otherwise be achieved. We show that for any underlying game and any equilibrium outcome available when communication is direct, there exists a communication scheme restricted to a particular network that implements all such outcomes (i.e., does not induce players to deviate in the communication phase) if and only if that network satisfies our conditions

Investigating the drivers for social commerce in social media platforms: Importance of trust, social support and the platform perceived usage


Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services

mars 2018, vol. 41, pp.11-19

Mots clés : Social commerce; S-vendors; Trust; Social media; Social support; UTAUT2 Model

This study sheds light on the drivers of social commerce in social media platforms. First, it explores the perceived characteristics of the social commerce vendor and investigates their influence on users’ trust. Second, it tests the influence of trust and the platform perceived usage (using the Unified Technology Acceptance and Use of Technology Model 2) on social commerce intent. Data from a survey of Instagram users, within the Golf Corporation Council countries, were collected online. Results show that reputation and price advantage have the strongest influence on trust, although those effects are weakened by habits. Contrary to expectations, social interactions with the social commerce vendor decrease trust. Similarly, product differentiation reduces trust. Nevertheless, this effect is negatively moderated by social support. Perceived ease of use of the platform, facilitating conditions, hedonic motives and habits increase social commerce intent. The findings of this research offer some insights on the mechanisms through which the s-vendor characteristics influence social commerce intent on social media platforms. Findings help businesses better understand the social commerce landscape and improve their marketing strategies

Legal Indicators in Transnational Law Practice: A Methodological Assessment


Jurimetrics, The Journal of Law, Science, and Technology

hiver 2018, vol. 58, n°2, pp.163-209

Départements : Droit et fiscalité

With metrics and analytics spreading into every profession and discipline,evidence-based decision-making is on the rise. Legal practice is also concerned by this trend, as reflected in the growing use of quantitative data by law firms with respect to their corporate clients. Based on the examination of the potential uses of legal indicators in an evidence-based approach to transnational law practice, this article argues that indicators can provide lawyers operating in a transnational context with a relevant source of evidence to move towards a quantitatively informed practice of law. While most academic literature on legal indicators focuses on their governance effects, writings on evidence-based law have not yet investigated the contribution that indicators can make to law practice. This article aims to bridge this gap. It provides a methodological assessment of eight major business law indicators and illustrates four potential applications: (1) ranking and benchmarking, (2) screening, (3) measuring legal risk, and (4) supporting litigation. The article concludes that transnational lawyers should employ transnational legal indicators on a daily basis as an opportunity to reengineer legal practice along the lines of the management culture in which transnational firms now live in

Optimizing Service Failure and Damage Control


International Journal of Research in Marketing

mars 2018, vol. 35, n°1, pp.100-115

Départements : Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Service Quality, Service Reliability, Service Failure, Damage Control

Should a provider deliver a reliable service or should it allow for occasional service failures? This paper derives conditions under which randomizing service quality can benefit the provider and society. In addition to cost considerations, heterogeneity in customer damages from service failures allows the provider to generate profit from selling damage prevention services or offering compensation to high-damage customers. This strategy is viable even when reputation counts and markets are competitive

Priority optimization and make-to-stock/make-to-order decision in multiproduct manufacturing systems


International Transactions in Operational Research

juillet 2018, vol. 25, n°4, pp.1199-1219

Départements : GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : make-to-stock (MTS); make-to-order (MTO); priority level; heterogeneous multiproduct produc-tion/inventory system; queuing model

We consider a single-stage multiproduct manufacturing facility producing a large number of end products.In order to reduce overall inventory costs, an efficient approach is to produce some items according to amake-to-stock (MTS) policy and others according to a make-to-order (MTO) policy. Items priority levelsplay a key role in the optimal MTO/MTS decisions for such typical large-scale systems. To tackle this issue,the manufacturing facility is modeled as a multiproduct multipriority classes queuing system. We proposea general optimization procedure that selects near-optimal priority classes, gives the associated flow controlmode (MTO or MTS) for each product, and provides a lower bound and an upper bound with respect to theoptimal cost. First, we illustrate efficiency of our optimization procedure for this class of nonlinear integerprograms via several examples and by a numerical analysis, including a comparison with two alternativeheuristics given in the literature. In addition, we provide managerial insights by exhibiting, under variousparameter settings, the significant impact of an efficient priority level allocation among items on the inventorycosts and on optimal splitting between MTO and MTS product

Risk analysis and decision theory: A bridge


European Journal of Operational Research

janvier 2018, vol. 264, n°1, pp.280-293

Mots clés : Decision analysis, Risk analysis, Decision theory, Epistemic uncertainty

The risk-triplet approach pioneered by Kaplan and Garrick is the keystone of operational risk analysis. We perform a sharp embedding of the elements of this framework into the one of formal decision theory, which is mainly concerned with the methodological and modeling issues of decision making. The aim of this exercise is twofold: on the one hand, it gives operational risk analysis a direct access to the rich toolbox that decision theory has developed, in the last decades, in order to deal with complex layers of uncertainty; on the other, it exposes decision theory to the challenges of operational risk analysis, thus providing it with broader scope and new stimuli