The Pipeline Project: Pre-Publication Independent Replications of a Single Laboratory’s Research Pipeline


Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

septembre 2016, vol. 66, pp.55-67

Départements : Marketing, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Crowdsourcing science, Replication, Reproducibility, Research transparency, Methodology, Meta-science

This crowdsourced project introduces a collaborative approach to improving the reproducibility of scientific research, in which findings are replicated in qualified independent laboratories before (rather than after) they are published. Our goal is to establish a non-adversarial replication process with highly informative final results. To illustrate the Pre-Publication Independent Replication (PPIR) approach, 25 research groups conducted replications of all ten moral judgment effects which the last author and his collaborators had “in the pipeline” as of August 2014. Six findings replicated according to all replication criteria, one finding replicated but with a significantly smaller effect size than the original, one finding replicated consistently in the original culture but not outside of it, and two findings failed to find support. In total, 40% of the original findings failed at least one major replication criterion. Potential ways to implement and incentivize pre-publication independent replication on a large scale are discussed

The Politics of Achievement Gaps: U.S. Public Opinion on Race-Based and Wealth-Based Differences in Test Scores


Educational Researcher

2016, vol. 45, n°6, pp.331-346

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines

Mots clés : achievement gap; educational policy; equity; experimental research; politics; poverty; race; survey research

For decades, researchers have documented large differences in average test scores between minority and White students and between poor and wealthy students. These gaps are a focal point of reformers’ and policymakers’ efforts to address educational inequities. However, the U.S. public’s views on achievement gaps have received little attention from researchers, despite playing an important role in shaping policymakers’ behaviors. Drawing on randomized experiments with a nationally representative sample of adults, we explore the public’s beliefs about test score gaps and its support for gap-closing initiatives. We find that Americans are more concerned about—and more supportive of proposals to close—wealth-based achievement gaps than Black-White or Hispanic-White gaps. Americans also explain the causes of wealthbased gaps more readily

The role of codes of conduct in the assessment of unfair commercial practices


Journal of Business Law

2016, vol. 6, pp.451-464

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Codes of conduct; EU law; Unfair commercial practices

This article provides an in-depth analysis of the role of codes of conduct in the assessment of unfair commercial practices established by Directive 2005/29 of 11 May 2005 concerning unfair business-to-consumer practices in the internal market and its current reception in Member States case law

The Sovereign-Bank Diabolic Loop and ESBies


American Economic Review

mai 2016, vol. 106, n°5, pp.508-512

Départements : Finance

We propose a simple model of the sovereign-bank diabolic loop, and establish four results. First, the diabolic loop can be avoided by restricting banks domestic sovereign exposures relative to their equity. Second, equity requirements can be lowered if banks only hold senior domestic sovereign debt. Third, such requirements shrink even further if banks only hold the senior tranche of an internationally diversified sovereign portfolio known as ESBies in the euro-area context. Finally, ESBies generate more safe assets than domestic debt tranching alone; and, insofar as the diabolic loop is defused, the junior tranche generated by the securitization is itself risk-free

The Utilitarian Relevance of the Aggregation Theorem


American Economic Journal: Microeconomics

août 2016, vol. 8, n°3, pp.289-306

Départements : Economie et Sciences de la décision, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Utilitarianism, Aggregation Theorem, Impartial Observer Theorem, Cardinal utility, VNM utility, Harsanyi, Sen

Harsanyi (1955) invested his Aggregation Theorem and Impartial Observer Theorem with utilitarian sense, but Sen (1986) described them as "representation theorems" with little ethical import. This critical view has never been subjected to full analytical scrutiny. The formal argument we provide here supports the utilitarian relevance of the Aggregation Theorem. Following a hint made by Sen himself, we posit an exogeneous utilitarian ordering that evaluates riskless options by the sum of individual utilities, and we show that any social observer who obeys the conditions of the Aggregation Theorem evaluates social states in terms of a weighted variant of this utilitarian sum.

Trade Credit and Industry Dynamics: Evidence from Trucking Firms


The Journal of Finance

octobre 2016, vol. 71, n°5, pp.1975-2016

Départements : Finance

Long payment terms are a strong impediment to the entry and survival of liquidity-constrained firms. To test this idea and its implications, I consider the effect of a reform restricting the trade credit supply of French trucking firms. In a difference-in-differences setting, I find that trucking firms' corporate default probability decreases by 25% following the restriction. The effect is persistent, concentrated among liquidity-constrained firms, and not offset by a decrease in profits. The restriction also triggers an increase in the entry of small trucking firms

Unraveling Belgian fashion designers' high perceived success: A set-theoretic approach


Journal of Business Research

avril 2016, vol. 69, n°4, pp.1407-1411

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise

Mots clés : Fashion design industryAmbidexterityDominant logiccsQCA

This article presents an explorative comparative case study of 19 cases in the fashion design industry regarding the achievement of high perceived organizational success. The set-theoretic analysis of these data yields two configurational pathways to high perceived success. Firstly, a balance between exploitation and exploration is necessary, especially when the fashion design firm is at an early stage in the life cycle or following dominant industry logic. Secondly, no balance is sufficient for low perceived organizational success. These findings enhance configurational understanding of the fashion industry and show that the business side of that industry needs more support

Voluntary disclosure of greenhouse gas emissions: Contrasting the carbon disclosure project and corporate reports


Journal of Business Ethics

mars 2016, vol. 134, n°3, pp.445-461

Mots clés : Communication channels, GHG emissions, Stakeholder theory, Traceability, Voluntary disclosure

As global warming continues to attract growing levels of attention, various stakeholders (states, general public, investors, and lobbyists) have put climate change on corporate agendas and expect firms to disclose relevant greenhouse gas (GHG) information. In this paper, we investigate the consistency of the GHG information voluntarily disclosed by French listed firms through two different communication channels: corporate reports (CR) and the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP). More precisely, we contrast the amounts of GHG emissions reported and the methodological explanations provided (named ‘traceability’) in each channel. Consistent with a stakeholder theory perspective, we find that GHG amounts are significantly lower in the CR than in the CDP. We also find that firms increase the CR figures’ traceability when there is a discrepancy between disclosures in the two channels. We suggest that the aim of this greater traceability is to enhance information credibility across the different channels used

What determines crime rates? An empirical test of integrated economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior


The Social Science Journal

juin 2016, vol. 53, n°2, pp.247-262

Départements : Management et Ressources Humaines, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : Crime, Property crime, Violent crime, Deterrence, Integrated model

Research on crime has by no means reached a definitive conclusion on which factors are related to crime rates. We contribute to the crime literature by providing an integrated empirical model of economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior and by using a very comprehensive set of economic, social as well as demographic explanatory variables. We use panel data techniques to estimate this integrated crime model for property and violent crime using the entire population of all 100 counties in North Carolina for the years 2001–2005. Both fields contribute to the explanatory power of the integrated model. Our results support the economic explanation of crime with respect to the deterrent effect of the probabilities of arrest and imprisonment concerns, as well as the time allocation model of criminal activities. In contrast, the integrated model seems to reject the impact of the severity of punishment on crime levels. With respect to the sociological theories of crime, we find most support for the social disorganization theory and for the routine activity theory. Finally, we find differences between property and violent crimes, mostly explained by the sociological models.

What the TTIP leaks mean for the on-going negotiations and future agreement?: Time to overcome TTIP's many informational asymmetries


European Journal of Risk Regulation

2016, vol. 7, n°2, pp.237 - 241

Départements : Droit et fiscalité, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Mots clés : TTIP, international trade, FTA, EU, US, regulatory convergence, regulatory coherence, mutual recognition, equivalence, regulatory compatibility, risk regulation

One of the major merits of the TTIP leaks has been to highlight the underlying information asymmetry characterising the on-going TTIP negotiations. By systematically releasing its position papers before each negotiation, the EU actual disclosure policy contributes to a permanent yet overlooked information imbalance between the EU and its trading partner(s). The ensuing asymmetry does not only alter the overall negotiating environment, but also how the media, academics, and, in turn, the public actually perceive it. Moreover, it generates many other information asymmetries within the EU itself: that between the negotiators and the elected representatives, that between corporate and civil society interest groups, and eventually between the ‘TTIP circus’ and the general public. If the negotiators themselves have hijacked the rhetoric of fact-checking, academics have not yet had their chance to contribute to the discussion. As a result, only the EU positions have been studied, criticized and closely debated, with the US negotiating positions remaining largely a mystery. After briefly presenting the how’s of the TTIP leaks, this opening piece examines the what’s and why’s behind this unprecedented revelation of negotiating texts. It is against this backdrop that the other contributors to this symposium explore which are the most immediate consequences of the TTIP leaks on the on-going negotiations and future agreement.