Cahiers de recherche

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Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Beside making organizations look like their peers through the adoption of similar attributes (which we call alignment), this paper highlights the fact that conformity also enables organizations to stand out by exhibiting highly salient attributes key to their field or industry (which we call conventionality). Building on the conformity and status literatures, and using the case of major U.S. symphony orchestras and the changes in their concert programing between 1879 and 1969, we hypothesize and find that middle-status organizations are more aligned, and middle-status individual leaders make more conventional choices than their low- and high-status peers. In addition, the extent to which middle-status leaders adopt conventional programming is moderated by the status of the organization and by its level of alignment. This paper offers a novel theory and operationalization of organizational conformity, and contributes to the literature on status effects, and more broadly to the understanding of the key issues of distinctiveness and conformity.

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

How do subsidiaries respond to normative demands from both their headquarters and local external constituents? We propose that subsidiaries pay varying levels of attention to either demands depending on their peers’ norm-conforming behavior, resulting in heterogeneous practice implementation. We study the implementation of 25 practices, associated with three corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues in 101 worldwide subsidiaries of a multinational enterprise (MNE). Consistent with the idea that attention is limited and therefore selective, we find that external peers' conformity to the CSR norm directs subsidiaries’ attention toward the CSR-related demands of external constituents at the expense of the demands from the headquarters. However, internal peers’ conformity increases attention to both external and headquarters’ demands related to CSR. As higher attention levels result in higher practice implementation, internal and external peers' conformity drives the heterogeneity of practice implementation in the MNE. Our results suggest the need to rethink the influence of peers’ conformity on subsidiaries’ implementation of practices, as it not only triggers mimicry based on legitimacy but also and simultaneously a more strategic response based on internal and external competitive threats and attention allocation.

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

We model the decision making process used by experts at the Canadian Innovation Centre to classify early stage venture proposals based on potential commercial success. The decision is based on thirty seven attributes that take values in (-1; 0; 1). We adopt a conjunctive decision framework due to Astebro and Elhedhli that selects a subset of attributes and determines two threshold values: one for the maximum allowed negatives (n) and one for minimum required positives (p). A proposal is classified as a success if the number of positives is greater than or equal to p and the number of negatives is less than or equal to n over the selected attributes. Based on data of 561 observations, the selection of attributes and the determination of the threshold values is modeled as a large-scale mixed integer program. Two solution approaches are explored: Benders decomposition and Tabu search. The first was very slow to converge, while the second provided high quality solutions quickly. Tabu Search provides excellent classification accuracy for predicting commercial successes as well as replicating the experts' forecasts, opening the venue for the use of Tabu Search in scoring and classification problems

Mots clés : tabu search, large-scale mixed integer program, classification, decision heuristic, early stage venture forecast

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

This paper examines the impact of the macro-institutional environment on exploitative-explorative innovation. Building on organizational learning, institutional economics, and innovation studies, we identify country-level institutions that might foster or hinder firms’ incentives and ability to explore or exploit. We test our conjectures by analyzing all patented firm innovations in 22 countries over the 1985-2008 timeframe. Empirical tests demonstrate the role of national institutions in explaining cross-country differences in the level of exploitative and exploratory innovation. The results also suggest that firms’ incentives to explore are influenced by changes in the institutions that regulate the ecology of competition in an economy.

Mots clés : Exploration versus exploitation, Innovation and R&D, Patents, Institutional environment, Panel data

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

We investigate the mechanisms that shape social comparison in organizations and generate social comparison costs. Drawing on the notions of inequity aversion and envy, we argue that heterogeneity in the strength and type of incentives provides an impetus for envy, and that the resulting social comparison costs are shaped not only by the magnitude of this impetus, but the distance of envy’s objects. In other words, the more proximate socially, structurally and geographically are those one envies the larger the costly behavioral response. To test our predictions, we use a quasi-experimental event during which outlets of a retail bank, previously operating under homogenous incentives, were assigned to four distinct tournament groups with differing ex ante probabilities of winning a prize — an event that provides envy’s impetus. We then explore how, for each outlet, the proximity of those assigned to more advantaged outlets — objects of envy — shape productivity responses. We find that organizational units with more socially, geographically, and structurally proximate peers assigned to ‘better’ tournament groups decreased their productivity, when compared to peers whose objects of envy were more socially, geographically, and structurally distant. We also show that these effects are stable over time. We discuss implications of these results for organizational design and boundaries.

Mots clés : Incentives, Social Comparison Costs, Envy, Organization Design

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Raters of firms play an important role in assessing domains ranging from sustainability to corporate governance to best places to work. Managers, investors, and scholars increasingly rely on these ratings to make strategic decisions, invest trillions of dollars in capital and study corporate social responsibility (CSR), guided by the implicit assumption that the ratings are valid. We document the surprising lack of agreement across social ratings from six well-established raters. These differences remain even when we adjust for explicit differences in the definition of CSR held by different raters, implying the ratings have low validity. Our results suggest that users of social ratings should exercise caution in interpreting their connection to actual CSR and that raters should conduct regular evaluations of their ratings.

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Strategic alliances are undertaken to create value through complementarities of resources and capabilities of the partner firms. We develop a matching framework to study strategic alliances, taking a market perspective that explicitly incorporates key features of transactions in strategic alliances: two sided decision making in voluntary collaboration; quest for complementarities between indivisible and heterogeneous partner attributes; and competition on each side for partners on the other side. We assess the relative performance of matching models and binary choice models when estimating parameters within simulations based on a known functional relationship. Within the context of research alliances in the bio-pharmaceutical industry, we hypothesize and find support using the matching model framework for complementarity in partner size, and in upstream research capabilities.

Mots clés : alliances, two-sided matching, maximum score estimator, bio-pharmaceutical industry, complementarity

  • SPE-2014-1056
  • Projecting Different Identities: A Longitudinal Study of the 'Whipsaw' Effects of Changing Leadership Discourse About the Triple Bottom Line

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

Départements : GREGHEC (CNRS), Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise

The important role of entrepreneurship in the dynamics of the arts sector and the influence of the leader’s personality make succession a key issue in creative industries. What happens to an artistic organization when its founder leaves? How does it evolve? Can it adopt a style of management that is compatible with the founder’s absence? This article focuses on the case of Groupe Bernard Loiseau, an iconic French company in the culinary arts whose owner and chef died suddenly. It sheds light on how the question of succession and that of style were addressed in this organization and how they are addressed in artistic organizations in general

Mots clés : Succession, culinary art, entrepreneurial management, creative industries

Départements : Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise, GREGHEC (CNRS)

We propose a task for eliciting attitudes towards risk that is close to real world risky decisions which typically involve gains and losses. The task consists of accepting or rejecting gambles that provide a gain with probability p and a loss with probability 1 - p. We employ finite mixture models to uncover heterogeneity in risk preferences and find that (i) behavior is heterogeneous, with slightly less than one half of the subjects behaving as expected utility maximizers, (ii) for the others, reference-dependent models perform better than those where subjects derive utility from final outcomes, (iii) models with sign dependent decision weights perform better than those without, and (iv) there is no evidence for loss aversion. The procedure is sufficiently simple so that it can be easily used in field or lab experiments where risk elicitation is not the main experiment.

Mots clés : Individual risk taking behavior; latent heterogeneity; finite mixture models; reference-dependence; loss aversion


Département Stratégie et Politique d’Entreprise

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Stratégie et Politique d'Entreprise (GREGHEC)

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